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This paper analyses the diachronic development of English HAD BETTER (and HAD RATHER) structure(s). It is argued that the original construction out of which HAD BETTER/RATHER developed and which contained the verb BEON ‘be' could be substituted by a new construction employing HAD by virtue of the fact that these two verbs in a great number of contexts are devoid of any cognitive content leading to their mutual interchangeability (§1). Section 2 is devoted to the examination of the development of the construction in question. In section 3 it is shown how the mechanisms and principles of grammaticalisation set out by Lehmann (1982) (002), Hopper (1991) and Heine (2003) (2005) apply in this particular case of grammaticalisation. The bulk of language illustrations comes from the Dictionary of Old English, the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse and the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. The references to the actual works follow the pattern of the first two electronic corpora.
Content available remote Transduction as an alternative to intertextuality in the realm of fictional worlds
The investigation of intertextuality in the Czech scholarly milieu is traditionally demarcated by the Bakhtinian-Kristevan “broad” approach on the one hand, and by the Nitra School’s “technical” approach on the other. Nevertheless, it seems that one of the few Czech contributions to the topic, embodied in Lubomír Doležel’s conception of fictional worlds, namely in the notion of transduction, remains relatively unused. The theory of fictional worlds has taught us that fictional texts can be investigated not only as such but also on the level of the fictional worlds they underlie. The connections between literary works can thus be viewed against the background of all of the parts and procedures connected with a specific form of literary communication. Thus, an important aspect which is usually omitted by the classics of intertextuality is accented: the pragmatic aspect of the functioning of literary works. This aspect is implemented in the concept of transduction which actually enables literary scholars to investigate these relationships not only on the textual level (the intensional structures of fictional worlds), but also, equally importantly, on the level of story-worlds (the extensional structures of fictional worlds).
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