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PL
W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań stopnia zapylenia atmosfery w rejonie uprzemysło- wionym. Jako wielkość porównawczą przyjęto współczynnik zapylenia Angstroma. Wartość tego współczynnika wyznaczono pośrednio, na podstawie wyników pomiarów natężenia promieniowania słonecznego bezpośredniego oraz pozostałych parametrów zastosowanego modelu transmisji promieniowania słonecznego w atmosferze ziemskiej. Przedstawiono rezultaty badań przeprowadzonych w okresie 10 lat w rejonie miasta Opola.
EN
Results of measurements of atmosphere turbidity in the industrial region are presented. The Angstrom's turbidity coefficient is used as reference parameter. The value ofthis parameter is determined on the basis of measurement of the intensity of solar direct radiation component and other necessary values of selected parameterised model of solar be am transmittance in the earth's atmosphere. The presented results are obtained on the bases of ten-year measurements carried out in the Opole region.
EN
The reservoir where the studies were carried out was originated by modification of an old oxbow lake of the Vistula River. The most important sources of inflowing waters are industrial waters from "Puławy Fertilizer Factory". The highest variability of concentration, was NH4 +-N and also Cl-, Ntot., and PO4 -3. Some significant correlations between chemical properties of water and algae (especially green algae and diatoms) were found, which suggested that this phytoplankton was mainly responsible for the biogeochemical cycles in the shallow, strongly polluted reservoir. Another interesting phenomenon was the statistically positive correlation between the density of cyanobacteria and potassium, which suggested that it may play an important role in their abundance.
EN
The paper describes a methodology of determining the toxicity sources, using bioassay based on the wildlife objects that change their colorimetric parameters under the influence of toxic factors. The work explores the dynamism of the colorimetric attributes associated with plant pigments. It can be determined by computer processing of the data obtained from digital remote sensing of the lands affected by toxic pollution by means of such relatively low-cost and straightforward methods as digital photography from an aircraft or a drone. The results obtained do not allow direct measurements but rather serve as a basis for the development and characterization of new biomarkers.
EN
The paper presents an evaluation of leachate monitoring data as well as investigation of temporal and seasonal variability of leachate quality. The analysis includes 27 sampling carried out at selected municipal landfill during 7-year observation period. In leachate samples, concentration of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Hg, Cd, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and value of pH and electro-conductivity (EC) were determined. Estimation of landfill leachate demonstrated a declining trend in EC, TOC and Zn concentration with time. Concentration of Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd and PAH remained relatively constant with respect to the sampling time, however, the value of pH showed a growing trend due to the decrease of the concentration of the partially ionized free volatile fatty acids. Average concentration of heavy metals in leachate were observed in trace quantities (<1.0 mg·dm-3). There were no statistically significant seasonal variations in concentration of the analyzed parameters, however, the highest concentration of EC, TOC and PAH were observed in summer. The negative correlation of pH with Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Hg, Cd indicated a strong connection of leachate’s pH with heavy metals concentration. A cluster analysis allowed to specify two groups of variables: cluster I with TOC as an indicator of organic pollution in leachate and claster II with the rest of parameters. Further systematic monitoring is necessary, but its scope, according to the author, should be redefined.
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EN
The article presents an analysis of pro-ecological activities in the municipality of Wadowice in the field of air quality protection against the effects of low emission. Research conducted by the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Krakow indicated that in the town of Wadowice, the capital of the municipality, in the period from October till March, the permissible level of particulate matter (PM10) was exceeded on average approximately 16 times within one month. The municipality of Wadowice is one of the most polluted municipalities of the Małopolska voivodeship. The elaborated municipal Low-Emission Economy Plan, updated in 2017, is coherent with the climate and energy package and implements the guidelines of the new European Union 2020 strategy for economic and social development. Until 2015, the municipality had implemented the KAWKA program, which led to liquidation of 11 coal-fired boiler rooms and installation of 11 new boiler rooms. The continuation of the system in 2016 enabled the closure of further 31 coal-fired boiler rooms and the assembly of new boiler rooms and 10 solar panel installations in order to reduce emissions in the local fuel-fired heat source.
EN
Ranggeh River is one of the inlets of Lake Maninjau (West Sumatra, Indonesia), which has a vital role in supporting the life of native fish. Increasing anthropogenic activities (agriculture and human settlements) around the river can harm benthic macroinvertebrates as natural food for fish. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze and observe water quality changes and their impact on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the Ranggeh River. Sampling was conducted from February to August 2019 using the Hess Sampler tool. The results indicate that the anthropogenic impacts around the Ranggeh River on water quality has changed the macroinvertebrate benthic community structures (composition, abundance, and biological index). Furthermore, the Ephemeroptera Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) number of taxa index were superior in reflecting disturbances in the Ranggeh River compared to the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Percent Model Affinity (PMA). In conclusion, the anthropogenic effect on the macroinvertebrate community in the Ranggeh River prominently was caused by habitat changes rather than enrichment by nutrients (TN and TP).
EN
Analyses of lead isotopic composition in industrial materials (tetraethyl lead, coal, ash and slag from coal combustion, and fragment of lead battery cell and lead foil) were undertaken. It has been found that there are significant differences among isotopic signatures of their constituent lead and, consequently, the substances are isotopically distinguishable. Studies of isotopic composition of lead in soils from Park-Mausoleum of Soviet Soldiers in Warsaw proved usefulness of the isotopic methods in environmental researches and have shown that gasoline combustion is responsible for lead pollution of soil. Isotopic analyses of lead indicate that the influence of road on lead contamination of soils depends on the distance and that relocation of lead in a soil profile is limited.
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PL
W artykule opisano problematykę skażenia środowiska pyłem zawieszonym PM 10 w wyniku działalności transportowej. Przedstawiono wpływ samochodów ciężarowych dużej ładowności na wyniki przeprowadzonych badań symulacyjnych i określono główne czynniki determinujące go.
EN
The paper describes the problems of environmental pollution by particulate matter PM 10 as a result of transport activity. Shows the effect of heavy duty trucks on the results of simulation studies and identifies the main factors determining it.
EN
This study was conducted to investigate the degree of bioremediation that would occur in the samples of soil polluted with raw and treated crude petroleum (oil) with the aid of Aspergillus niger (fungi) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacteria). This was achieved by monitoring the Organic carbon content in the soil over 45 days and pH over 25 days. Four systems of 500 g soil were polluted with 40 g treated crude petroleum, while four systems were contaminated with 40 g raw crude petroleum. The eight systems were labeled accordingly. Two systems for raw crude control and treated crude control (RCC and TCC) were left as control, two systems for raw crude Aspergillus niger and treated crude Aspergillus niger (RCA and TCA) were treated with Aspergillus niger only, two systems for raw crude Pseudomonas aeruginosa and treated crude Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCP and TCP) were treated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa only and the last two systems for raw crude Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCAP and TCAP) were treated with both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. At the end of the bioremediation period, the results obtained showed that the pH was not particularly a solid parameter to estimate the degree of bioremediation. This is because a proper trend in the results obtained could not be determined. Additionally, it was observed that Aspergillus niger (fungi) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacteria) alone and separate remediate raw crude polluted soil better than treated crude polluted soil. This was determined by the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) values on the 45th day of the experiment.
EN
Environmental pollution is currently a major concern due to unorganised and increased industrialization and urban development. In the Tamilnadu state of India, on the Bay of Bengal, lies the Ennore estuary, which is an important industrial centre. The main industries in the region include a fertilizer company, refineries, a rubber factory, paint industry and a thermal power station. Investigations into the seasonal pollution impacts on the distribution of various metals in the waters of the Ennore estuary, situated in North Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, and the concentrations of some of the toxic metals in the tissue of the grey mullet, Mugil cephalus L., inhabiting in the same estuary were conducted during the period of April 2004 to March 2006. The results were compared to those of the Kovalam estuary, which is unpolluted. In the water at one sample site of the Ennore estuary, heavy metal concentrations ranged between: Pb 0.15-0.23, Hg 0.05-0.06, Cd 0.01-0.03, and Cr 3.33-1.093 ppm for summer and monsoon seasons, and were significantly related to the seasonal rains (p<0.01). In contrast, heavy metal concentrations in the Kovalam estuary ranged between: Pb 0.043-0.039, Hg non-detectable-0.001, Cd 0.01-0.098, and Cr 0.063-0.052 ppm, and were not significantly related to the rainy season. The metal concentrations found in the muscle tissues of Mugil cephalus L., at the same site on the Ennore estuary were: Fe 11.06 š0.29, Zn 1.67 š0.14, Cr 2.98 š0.15, and Pb 1.26 š0.11 ppm, which were also significantly related to season (p<0.01). The metal concentrations in fish inhabiting the Kovalam estuary were: Fe 2.17 š0.15, Zn 0.42 š0.05, Cr 0.63 š0.04, and Pb 0.31 š0.04, and showed no significant seasonal difference. The highest metal concentrations found in the tissues of the Ennore estuary fish which lead to the oxidative stress and shorten the lifespan of the fish are postulated to primarily result from anthropogenic activities and effluent discharge from the local industrial activities.
EN
The problem that occurs downstream of the Jembatan Dua river is that it has been polluted by the parameters of BOD, COD and PO4 with the results of the measurements being 3 mg/L, 37 mg/L, and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. This study aims to analyze the conceptual model of pollution control strategies in the downstream Sentani watershed. The method used in this research is the SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) method with four SWOT strategies, namely SO (Strength-Opportunities), WT (Weakness-Threats), and WO (Weakness-Opportunities). The results showed that the pollution load of TDS and TSS continued to increase from 2016-2019. The conceptual model of the strategy for controlling water pollution in the downstream Sentani watershed is the SO (strength-opportunities) strategy with coordinates (0.26; 0.18). This SO strategy needs to be implemented in the short term, namely: utilizing internal strengths to capture external opportunities. SO strategies include: Increasing environmental law enforcement, increasing leadership commitment and the role of government institutions in handling pollution and mainstreaming sustainable development, and making the lake an ecotourism area by keeping the lake unpolluted.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań skażenia metalami ciężkimi środowiska naturalnego, w tym zwłaszcza cynkiem i ołowiem, w rejonie hałd odpadów poprodukcyjnych rud Zn-Pb w otoczeniu zakładów górniczych w Bukownie. Badania koncentrowano na poflotacyjnych odpadach powstających w procesie wzbogacania rud Zn-Pb, które składowane są w formie hałd w pobliżu Bukowna. Wykonano badania osadów odprowadzanych tzw. kanałem poflotacyjnym z obszarów wspomnianych hałd. Stwierdzono, że w hałdach występują znaczne ilości pierwiastków ciężkich podobnie, jak w dennych osadach sedymentujących w kanale poflotacyjnym. Wyniki badań wskazują, że składowane na hałdach odpady powstałe w procesie wzbogacania i hutniczej przeróbki rud Zn-Pb zawierają nadal znaczne ilości metali ciężkich. Dowodzi to niewystarczającej efektywności stosowanych procesów technologicznych. Rozdrabnianie dolomitów kruszconośnych sprzyja zwiększaniu powierzchni reakcji rozdrobnionych okruchów z otoczeniem, ułatwiając przenikanie metali ciężkich do otoczenia, w tym także do wód gruntowych. Prezentowane badania pozwalają na ocenę wielkości wynoszenia ciekami z rejonów hałd odpadów poflotacyjnych tych metali wraz z osadami dennymi.
EN
Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of slag obtained durng the melting of Zn-Pb ores of Boleslaw Area (south Poland) were performed. Additionally bottom sediments form chanel transporting rests after process of flotation were tested. Investigations were conducted with the use of polarizing light microscopy, SEM, AAS and ICP methods. Samples of slag were colleceted at five various points of slag heap localized near of Boleslaw (Fig. 1). Microscopic observations conducted at polarized light showed the dolomite as the major components of samples. Relicts of Zn-Pb ores are dissemianted between crystals of dolomite. Other materials present in samples are: calcite, sfalerite, wurcite, galenit, anglezite, markasite, pirite, melibkovite, manganite, pirolusite and iron oxides. Obtained datas showed the material present on heap conatin relatively high admixture of heavy elements. This phenomenon suggest that process of remake did not remove all elements polluting environment of area of Bukowno. Investigations of sediments collected in channel transporting rests after process of flotation were performed in selected fractions i. e. 0.063-0.020 mm and < 0.020 mm. The amount of following elements was determined: Al, Mn, K, Na, Cu, P, Ti, Sr, Ba, Cr, Ni, Mo, V, Ag, Co, La, Li, Be. Results of analyses are collected in tables and showed on diagrams. Obtained datas document fractional sedimentation of tested elements. Near of the centre of pollution are deposited mainly substances containing Zn and Fe. Minerals containing V are deposited at sligthly longer distance. The omount of all tested heavy elements decrease with the distance from the center of pollution. This phenomenon is the result of dilutation of sediments containing heavy metals by natural sediments transported into the channel from sourounding area.
EN
Volume magnetic susceptibility of soils and alluvial sediments from the eastern Pomeranian region near Gdańsk was investigated. Full set of geochemical analyses had been previously performed for all the samples studied. The results are presented in the form of the susceptibility maps of the topsoil horizon, the subsoil at the depth between 40 and 60 cm and the alluvial sediments. Additionally the differential susceptibility map between topsoil horizon and the subsoil at the depth 40-60 cm has been also constructed. A close correlation is observed between positive anomalies of differential susceptibility and urban areas. This is interpreted as surface anthropogenic pollution. Magnetic susceptibility values higher than 1200 x 10-6 SI units, observed in topsoil horizon, might reflect high contents of such elements as Ba, Co, Mg, Mn and Ni.
16
Content available remote Enviromental assesment of Skawina area based on selected parameters
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EN
The main aim of this study is to evaluate the assessment of the environmental effect of the city and industry in Skawina. Skawina is a town with a population of 25,000 situated about 15 km to the south-west of Kraków (S Poland). The main industrial facilities, located in the western part of the city, include: a coal-fired electric power plant, Lajkonik Snacks S.A. (food industry), the Vesuvius refractory ceramics factory and about 50 smaller industrial entities. Until 1980s of last century, one of the largest Polish aluminum smelters was operating in the western part of town. In 1981 the electrolysis department was closed due to huge emission of lethal fluorine, which was the major source of air, soil and water pollution in the area. It is hypothesized here that current environmental problems in the area result from contemporary and local urban or industrial activities rather than from historical pollution. Skawina is located at the junction of transit routes. The prevailing winds are SW and W bringing the air pollution from nearby Silesia. The town lies on the Skawinka River, a tributary to the Vistula River. Since the prevailing winds are SW and W, parallel to the river valley, temperature inversions and fogs are frequent. The Skawinka River is the source of city water for Skawina. In the lower part it receives a large volume of cooling water from the power plant. This is the Vistula River processed in the plant. It accepts municipal wastewater discharge too. Studies conducted in the 1970s showed extremely high levels of SO2 and particular matter in the atmosphere of Skawina. However, since the 1980s, there has been a significant improvement in air quality following decreases of industrial emissions. According to the data from the air monitoring network in the Małopolska region (Małopolska Sieć Monitoringu Powietrza 2007) and reports by the Voivoidship Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Kraków (Wojewódzki Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska w Krakowie 1994–2005), the improvement is observed for the whole Małopolska region.This study involved 10 soil samples from selected locations in the city of Skawina and 10 samples of water from the Skawinka River. The pH, loss of ignition and total elemental composition (using X-ray fluorescence XRF) was determined in soils. Bioavailability of selected elements was estimated based on extraction with HCl 1M. The temperature, pH, electric conductivity, colour and turbidity, as well as concentration of major ions (using atomic absorption spectrometry AAS) were determined in waters. The results were compared with current standards and legal regulations regarding water and soil pollution in urban areas. In spring 2015, a soil sampling campaign is planned for determination of current fluorine content in soils around the former aluminum processing plant. The soils are typical for urban areas: rich in clay and silt and lacking horizontal stratification. The pH exhibits bimodal distribution with maximums around 5 and around 8. Alkaline pH correlates with higher lost of ignition (ca. 8 wt. %) indicating the presence of carbonate fraction. Total concentration of selected elements in soils (particularly Ba up to 850 ppm, Zn up to 390 ppm, Pb up to 157 ppm, Cr up to 300 ppm) exceeds 105the limits of soil pollution in Poland. Therefore, the soils are classified as class pollution C typical for industrial zones according to Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska...(2002). The bioavailability determined using HCl 1M varies broadly and does not correlate with other parameters. This may indicate that bioavailable forms of metals are already complexed with organic components of the soil. The waters of the Skawinka River are strongly affected by the industry. All the physical and chemical parameters are strongly altered below the outlet of cooling water from the power plant. The plant uses water from the Wisła River. The discharge pollutes the waters of the Skawinka River mostly increasing the temperature (from 12 to 16°C) and mineralization (conductivity increases from 560 to 1230 mS/cm). Increased mineralization results mostly from increase in NaCl salinity. This results in drastic increase in turbidity (from 7 to 27 NTU) due to eutrophization. The waters are classified as IInd class according to Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska... (2011).Comparison of the results with previous studies indicates that the improvement of the state of the environment is small. This area was under heavy influence of various industry for many years resulting in strong deterioration of the soils. The waters of the Skawinka River are still under constant anthropogenic pressure. The results indicate that contamination of soils represents regional, long-range air pollution with historical component. The Skawinka River in turn, is under contemporary local environmental stress which should be improved particularly since recreational and sport facilities are developed on the river banks.
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Content available remote Removal of heavy metals from waste water using a hybrid membrane process
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EN
Soil and water pollution by heavy metals is currently a very important problem in environmental and other sectors. The origin of metals in water may be of either natural character (erosion of rocks and sediments, leaching of mineral resources) or anthropogenic character (mining and extraction of metals, industry, agriculture, etc.) (Martins et al. 2010). Many heavy metals, such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, etc., are the most polluting factors in industrial wastewater and may get into the ground water. Subsequently they are bio-accumulated in living organisms and cause various diseases and disorders (Jamil et al. 2010). These problems need to be responded by developing new and more efficient methods for waste-water treatment (Martins et al. 2010). In practice several methods are used for removal of heavy metals from water. One of the promising methods for the removal of metal ions from water is a hybrid membrane processes. This method includes two processes – adsorption of metal ions on the natural zeolite and microfiltration of zeolite suspension through ceramic membrane. Experiments were carried out using model solutions containing Cu2+ions (from CuSO4∙5H2O and Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O) a nd Zn2+ions (from ZnSO4∙7 H2O and Zn(NO3)2∙6H2O).In the experiments zeolite from Nižný Hrabovec localization (Zeocem JSC Bystré), Slovakia was used. Zeolite is mainly composed of mineral clinoptilolite (84%), other mineral are cristobalite (8%), clay (4%) and plagioclase (3–4%). Its structure is formed by three-dimensional network. Clinoptilolite is composed from silicate tetrahedron SiO44−bound together by oxygen atoms, where part of the Si atoms is replaced with aluminum AlO45−. This creates space structures with a number of cavities and channels, in which are accommodate metal cations and water molecules. The total volume of cavities is 24–32%. Zeolite has a bulk density of 1600–1800 kg∙m−3, a specific gravity of 2200–2440 kg∙m−3and the specific surface of 30–60 m2∙g−1 (www.zeocem.com). Adsorption experiments on model solutions were performed with the zeolite with particle size 20 microns. Before and after the experiments the concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) using iCE 3300 AA Spectrometer Thermo Scientific. Solutions with concentrations of 10–5000 mg∙L−1 were prepared from each of the chemicals. The solutions were shaken with 1 g of zeolite in 100 ml PET flasks on a shaker for 2.5 hours at 25°C and 220 rpm. The amounts of metals (Cu or Zn) in solutions were measured after stabilization, filtration and required dilution by AAS. The equilibrium between the concentration in solution and the adsorbed substance was evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models. According to the results of the adsorption experiments zeolite adsorbed of both the nitrates ions (Cu2+and Zn2+) (equilibrium concentrations 1.48 mg∙g−1and 1.49 mg∙g−1, respectively) best and the sulfate ions (0.34 mg∙g−1and 0.85 mg∙g−1, respectively) less. Due to better adsorption capacities of zeolite for ions derived from nitrates, further experiments were made from chemicals Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O and Zn(NO3)2∙6H2O. The next step was microfiltration of suspension of zeolite since a hybrid process for removal of Cu and Zn ions was used. Microfiltration was carried out at a constant pressure of 50 kPa, the f low rate of suspension 2.2 m ∙ s−1 and various concentrations of zeolite (1–6 g ∙ L−1). Tubular Membralox ceramic membrane was used, with length of 25 cm, internal diameter of 0.5 cm, external diameter of 0.7 cm and porosity of 50 nm. Active surface of the membrane was 49.48 cm2. Zeolite was added to the solution of ions circulating in the cross-flow microfiltration system. Metal ions were adsorbed by zeolite and the suspension was filtered by the membrane. The adsorbed metal remained circulating in the system and the permeat was purified water. Using this method, at suitable selection of the experimental conditions, up to 90–100% of metal ions can be removed from the solution.
EN
Wherever industrial development exists, environmental pollution increases day by day. The heavy metals play an important role in soil and environmental pollutions and directly affect the human being lives. In this study, we determine pollutions resulting from heavy metal particles emanating from the brake discs pads of the vehicles on high ways and nearby factories. The field work was carried out in İzmir-Aliağa industrial area. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were done at a long profile crossing the İzmir-Çanakkale highway that goes through the study area. Here, we have determined the effect of heavy metals causing pollution in the surroundings. The studies indicate that the average acceptable values of magnetic susceptibility in such areas is about 0-50×10¯⁵ SI. Here we show that the magnetic susceptibility measurement values obtained along our study profile are about 18 times the acceptable ranges.
EN
The fight against global warming and Earth atmosphere pollution has been for years one of the most important tasks of governments and national economies of the European Union members. Abandonment of efforts leading to reduction mainly of carbon dioxide emission by heavy industry, electric power generation based on coal, passenger aviation and wheeled passenger transport will inevitably be leading to deterioration of health condition of our citizens. This article presents an overview of commonly used structural and technological treatments which have impact on reduction of toxic standardized exhaust pollutants in the surface transport, exemplified on SW 400 engine version of L2 / 3 and its turbocharged version 6CT 107 2/L2. The impact of: engine's adjustment parameters, catalytic afterburners, exhaust gas recirculation, modifications of injectors, turbochargers, supercharging air-cooling and particulates filter on carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulates emission was thoroughly examined. The parameters being compared were the results of toxicity tests according to ECE-R49 Regulation and a maximal smoke values on full-load characteristics. In conclusion, of the paper the limiting allowable values of toxic components emitted in Diesel engines exhaust gases in the following EU Emission Standards are presented.
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