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Content available remote O naturalnych i antropogenicznych zmianach klimatu
The paper presents natural and anthropogenic causes changes of the Poland’s climate on the base of the meteorological data. It is difficult to distinguish anthropogenic climatic changes from the natural ones. The change of climate conditions in the 20th century resulted from the change of the character of atmospheric circulation (cyclonic south-western circulation) especially during winter and autumn. The climatological and astronomical forecasts are the only forecasts regarding changes of the Earth’s climate in the 21st century.
Przedstawiono przykład możliwości wykorzystania techniki georadarowej do określenia dokładnego położenia zlikwidowanej studni, a także do identyfikacji siatki zbrojeniowej w warstwie betonowej.
The detection and the location of anthropogenic objects lying in changeable subsoil can cause some problems. The joint reinforcement in concrete layer was shown.
The knowledge behind the culture and beliefs of indigenous community needs to be harnessed and should be used to complement the modern technologies and policies for better and sustainable use of biological resources and increase resilience of the sector associated. The main objective of the current research was to study Jhum (Traditional Shifting Cultivation System) and the cycles and culture associated with it. The study was done in northeast Himalayan region of India and phenomenological approach was used. The research reveals that Jhum is the component of traditional agro-ecosystem encompassing diverse set of knowledge and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional life-styles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources for their livelihood. The cycle associated with the system reflects the synergy of practices with the natural phenomenon and indicators. Contrary to common modern belief, Jhum is carbon sink, maintain soil health, preserve biological diversity and sustain local climate. Forest clearing during Jhum is not deforestation but forest modification allowing forest regrowth during sufficiently long fallow. Fundamentally, Jhum as a system is an integrated approach to establish agro-ecosystem in the difficult terrains of tropical hill regions that involve forest, soil, biodiversity and livestock management through their culture, tradition and rituals that coevolved with associated ecosystem. Instead of being threat to climate or environment, the system can provide deeper insight into the many different aspects of sustainable and climate resilient development; and the interrelated role of local peoples and their cultures.
This contribution presents the current state of the environment in the largest river basin of West Ukraine, the Dniester, on the background of the total river system of Ukraine. According to the results of the hydroand lithochemical investigations performed during the period of 1995-2001, the Dniester River system is in a satisfactory state according to total macrocomponents composition, nitric compounds and heavy metals content. But ground waters of the region are regionally polluted by nitrate-ions, thanks to the wide use of mineral fertilizers, wastewaters of animal farms and municipal sewage. Surface waters of the Dniester River, its tributaries and the Dniester Reservoir are strongly regionally polluted by phenols and oil-products, that may be connected with man-made as well as natural factors.
The investigation was carried out on the chemical composition of water in six Quaternary springs with a discharge of 0.5-3.6 L s-1 in catchment basins of various land use within the area of the town. The highest average concentration of dissolved compounds and major ions was recorded in springs in urbanized catchments where the concentrations of sodium and potassium were 5 times and of nitrates 7 times greater than in forested basins. Periodical oxygen deficiencies occurred, manifesting increasing pollution in ground waters and, indirectly, in surface waters.
Badano skład chemiczny wody 6 źródeł czwartorzędowych o wydajności 0.5-3.6 L s-1, w zlewniach o zróżnicowanym zagospodarowaniu powierzchni w granicach miasta. Najwyższe średnie stężenia związków rozpuszczonych oraz głównych jonów zanotowano w źródłach o zlewni zabudowanej, gdzie stężenia sodu i potasu były pięciokrotnie większe, a stężenia azotanów siedmiokrotnie większe niż w zlewniach zalesionych. Okresowo pojawiały się deficyty tlenowe, co jest oznaką postępującego zanieczyszczenia płytkich wód podziemnych, a także pośrednio wód powierzchniowych.
Some methods of artificial intelligence are evaluated in relation to development of medical elementology and primary prevention of health hazards related to antropogenic changes in the natural environment and the human food chain, diet, etc. Searching for a new paradigm of the cross-disciplinary system approach to nutritional prevention of excess or deficiency of some elements is very time- and cost-consuming task. Using artificial intelligence methods we obtained interesting conclusions on the basis of apparently fully exploited experimental data. Artificial intelligence (data mining and automatic knowledge discovering in particular) seems to be useful for developing interdisciplinary studies on medical elementology focused on application of scientific and technical progress for early detection of environmental health hazards related to excess or deficiency of selected elements in the natural environment, trophic chains and endoecological aspects (referring to possible inbalance of the basic homeostatic system). This cooperation was initiated by the foundating members of the International Union of Elementologists in New Delhi in 1983 and developed by a series of case studies, international conferences and monographs. Integration of studies in ecotoxicology, human ecology, environmental health with application of progress in informatics and environmental biotechnology is promising for more effective protection of health of consumers connected with changes of elements in the human diet and body (including primary prevention of some diseases of civilization).
Content available Wybrane problemy geomorfologiczne Mazowsza
Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie charakterystycznych cech rzeźby wybranych obszarów Mazowsza ze szczególnym zwróceniem uwagi na jej uwarunkowania zarówno naturalne, jak i antropogeniczne. Przedstawiono holoceńskie zmiany w obrębie zbocza doliny Wisły na przykładzie Skarpy Ursynowskiej, zmiany w dnie doliny związane z osadnictwem olęderskim, wybrane aspekty budowy geologicznej i cechy rzeźby w okolicy Łubienicy na Wysoczyźnie Ciechanowskiej, morfologię zboczy i dna doliny dolnej Narwi w okolicy Łubienicy i Pułtuska oraz rekonstrukcję zmian środowiska przyrodniczego w okolicach Nasielska (od początku wczesnego średniowiecza po okres nowożytny).
The main aim of the article is to present the landforms characteristics of the selected Mazovian areas with particular focus on its natural and anthropogenic conditions. This paper concerns the problems of: the Holocene changes within the Vistula River valley on the example of the the Ursynów Scarp development; the geomorphic changes in the bottom of the valley due to the Olęder settlements (the Kiełpińska Holm site), selected issues of geology and landscape evolution of the Ciechanowska Upland (The Lubienica-Superunki site), morphology of the slopes and of the Lower Narew Valley bottom near Łubienica and Pułtusk sites and the reconstruction of natural environment changes (from the early Middle Ages to the Early Modern Period) in the Nasielsk area.
The paper reports on the effects and range of anthropogenic pressure exerted on forest communities of the Knyszyńska Forest. A comparison between the potential natural vegetation and real vegetation gives an idea on the degree of damage to forest communities, which has been classified in ecological modelling. Logical expressions have been applied in ecological modelling for spatial analyses of vegetation changes carried out by the program ArcView GIS. The logical expressions applied to the GIS spatial database have permitted finding correlations of occurrence of particular types of the present-day real vegetation (in particular the post-clear-cutting communities, young tree communities and secondary forest communities) relative to the present-day potential natural vegetation. The data obtained in this way have been used in analysis of the scale and range of changes in the forest communities of the Knyszyńska Forest caused by forest management measures.Results of the study have shown that in the Knyszyńska Forest, the secondary communities occupy as much as 88.3% (919.56 km2), while the oldest tree-stands representing natural communities (of 100 - 120 years of age) occupy only 11.7% (122.28 km2). Among the secondary communities the greatest area is occupied by the secondary forest communities representing the stickstand and oldgrowth phases (66.9%) aged from 30 to about 100 years. The contribution of young tree stands - aged from 10 to 30 years is smaller - 16.6%, and that of post-clear-cutting and forest crops forming directly after clear cutting and aged up to 10 years is still smaller - of 4.8%. In the young-tree stands (16.6%) and forest secondary communities (66.9%) the largest is the contribution of those with domination of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) from artificial reforestation, making 11.2 and 55%, respectively, while the contribution of other secondary communities is much lower.
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