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EN
The paper contains a review of data concerning olfactory memory. The results of research suggest that olfactory memory is divided into a sensory register, a short-term storage and a long-term storage. The properties of the sensory register and short-term storage are similar to those observed in other modalities. The short-term olfactory memory stores about 6 elements, discloses a serial effect, odors are coded in a sensory, and not verbal code, and it is subject to interference. Odors can be stored for a very long time, but their identification and recognition are not always successful. Long-term coding of odors is similar as compared to other kind of material. Verbalization is helpful in this process, the encoding specifity principle is noted, as well as benefits from dual encoding. The tip-of-the-nose effect is observed. Women have higher achievements in olfactory memory as compared to men. Olfactory memory is present from birth and develops due to contacts with olfactory stimuli. In older age a deterioration in olfactory functioning and olfactory memory follows. Expert olfactory memory is the result of many exposures to specific olfactory stimuli and of the development of knowledge about them.
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Content available remote Nonverbal deficits in explicit and implicit memory of Parkinson's disease patients
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EN
This study examined verbal and nonverbal aspects of explicit and implicit memory in a sample of 19 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 21 control subjects. For implicit memory evaluation, we used a Mirror Reading (MR) task employing verbal material as well as a nonverbal Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task. For explicit memory measurement we applied a word pairs task (verbal) and pairs of a Japanese ideograms task (nonverbal). The PD patients displayed impairments in the nonverbal tasks only, namely, in the SRT task and the pairs of Japanese ideograms task. No correlation between Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) scores and the results of tasks in which PD patients displayed deficits (SRT and pairs of Japanese ideograms) were discovered. Interestingly, such a correlation was found in the case of MR and words pairs tasks, which did not distinguish PD patients from control group.
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2004
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tom 13
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nr 1(49)
165-179
EN
The concept of 'condensed history' developed by John Sundholm is used to analyse the movie 'Lava' by Tadeusz Konwicki. By using this concept it can be shown, on one hand, how the collective memory of social groups and nations is created, and, on the other hand, how a work of art can affect that memory. The author concentrates on the text of the Dziady by Adam Mickiewicz, and shows how it has been treated by Konwicki. He proceeds to show how the movie director has expanded on the original text and presented two centuries of Poland's history against the background of the 19th century poem. Finally he identifies those episodes in the movie which have been particularly emphasised by the director. The two aspects of the analysis, the spontaneous growth of collective memory and its susceptibility to influences, culminate in a review of the interest for the movie which was differently perceived in the early nineties and is differently perceived ten years later.
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Content available remote PAMÄŤ A NOSTALGIA V SÚČASNOM POĽSKOM ROMÁNE
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EN
The study aims to take a closer look at the phenomenon of the nostalgic review of the past in Polish postmodern novels. Nostalgia is used as extensively as it is circulated in the contemporary culture. Nostalgia is a specific attitude of an individual, which, however, is linked to the beliefs of the collective memory. Therefore, the presence of nostalgia in literature can be approached by the notions of the collective memory or in this case the autobiographical memory as elaborated by Maurice Halbwachs. The study investigates how Pawel Huelle and Stefan Chwin construct the image of a formerly tabooed past from the traces of German culture of former Danzig and how this newly constructed image of this town became the vital part of the identity of their narrators.
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Content available remote Frontal cortex, laterality, and memory: encoding versus retrieval
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EN
The cerebral hemispheres differ in their capabilities and response to verbal versus nonverbal visual material. A priori, it might thus be expected that the right hemisphere would be best activated during a mnemonic task with fMRI when using nonverbalizable images, and the left hemisphere with verbal material. However, previous psychological tests had shown a high degree of similarity in measures of memory for these disparate items. It was thus hypothesized that extensive commonality in the areas activated would prevail when this previously tested material was employed with fMRI. Six subjects underwent fMRI with four types of trials in blocks: fixating; passively viewing 12 words and 12 nonverbalizable images; endeavoring to remember (encoding) another set of 12 words and images; endeavoring to recognize (retrieve) previously viewed words or images. Passive viewing produced small islands of activation in left versus right frontal cortex for words and images, respectively. Endeavoring to remember enlarged the areas of activation and produced some bilaterality. Retrieval greatly augmented activation as well as bilaterality, and some 20% of the activated frontal volume was shared by words and images. Thus, on the one hand, the distribution of activation upon retrieval differed substantially for words versus images, but on the other, as predicted, there was considerable commonality. Predominant laterality of activation in some areas shifted between encoding and retrieval (HERA), importantly involving different regions for words versus images. Of course, processes other than memory per se are undoubtedly involved in these distributions of fMRI activation in frontal cortex, yet the nature of the to-be-remembered items is clearly a major factor, in accord with the asymmetric lateralization in their basic representation.
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EN
We investigated the effect of a single 2?g dose of vasopressin (AVP) analogue on the processes of retrieval of conditioned reflexes in rats with experimentally induced amnesia.The models used were: electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and hypoxia.It severely impaired the memory processes.The AVP analogue facilitated retrieval of passive avoidance in all animals.
EN
Participants solved a simple divergent problem, then performed an ostensibly unrelated speeded classification task concerning each of a series of nouns, and then free recalled the nouns. Some of the nouns in the classification task corresponded to certain demands of the problem. Recall of these nouns was analysed as a function of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) in the classification task. Earlier studies by the author indicated that memory for such words tends to be impaired. This has been attributed to inhibitory defence against current-goal-irrelevant processing they cause in the classification task. On the assumption that the processing and the inhibitory counteraction needs time to develop between the consecutive words, impaired recall was expected at some longer and not at some shorter RSIs. Indeed, recall of problem-related words was worse in the 1550-ms RSI condition than in the 1150-ms RSI condition. Unexpectedly, however, in the 350- and 750-ms RSI conditions recall was also impaired relative to the 1150-ms RSI condition. The latter did not differ from the 1150-ms RSI control condition, in which the problem was not solved. A revised model is proposed to account for the data, which assumes that strategically controlled inhibition may block task-irrelevant processing at an earlier or at a later phase, decreasing the accessibility of the memory contents involved.
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2004
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tom 13
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nr 1(49)
181-187
EN
In this movie the plot is constructed by the thoughts of the narrator. They follow two patters. In the first case a current event is shown as connected with past occurrences. The narrator's mother talks with him on the phone and reminiscences about her former boss who recently died. In the second case two events are connected by spatio-temporal contiguity. The narrator's son is asked by an elderly woman to read something to her. While he sets himself about to do it, the woman disappears leaving a hot cup of tea behind. In each case the troubling question is what is real. In the telephone case it is highly improbable that the print house where the mother had worked could actually make the politically incriminating printing mistake. In the tea cup case it is unbelievable that a ghost of a woman would drink a cup of tea. Memory easily confuses fact and fiction, and creates a world that seems partly real and partly unreal.
EN
The study aimed at indicating that interpersonal script of complaining exists within Polish culture. The authors investigated the impact of script-consistent and script-inconsistent information on memory (false recognition paradigm). The pattern of findings indicates the higher level of false recognition for the script-consistent information (complaining on topics typical for the script) comparing to the script-inconsistent information (complaining on topics non-typical for the script). The results do not reveal an analogous pattern for affirmation. The results of presented study as well as our earlier investigations suggest the existence of interpersonal script of complaining. Expressing dissatisfaction on topics typical for complaining is perceived as more typical and more desirable behavior than affirmation Furthermore, person who does not act along with the complaining script is perceived as less wise and kind than the person who conforms to the script. The authors hope that the script of complaining may constitute an important explanation of the widespread complaining tendency in Poland.
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2004
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tom 13
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nr 1(49)
9-21
EN
The discourse about memory has either a passive or an active character. In the passive version memory is not more than an imprint or a trace of impressions and thoughts. In the active version memory is a result of inner processes that transform impressions and thoughts. In passive memory the central metaphor is a wax tablet, in active memory the metaphor is a spoonful of milk poured into a glass of water. Both concepts of memory can be found in Plato and Aristotle, and then throughout the entire history of philosophy. The author highlights the functions of active memory.
EN
Walter Benjamin's thesis about a creative character of childhood is starting point for a text. According to Benjamin childhood can be compared to the dream. A process of growing up recalls awakening. A world that children perceive, however mysterious and unknown, process a fullness that disappears when they grown up. In philosopher's reflection childhood evoke a collection of postcards inscribed in a memory. Freud's metaphor of archaeology illustrates the mechanism of recreating memories is human mind. In this metaphor a concept of afterwardness is essential. Freud interpreted 'afterwardness' as an understanding of traumatic experience, that took place 'too early', but their presence in a consciousness came 'too late'. In the first part of text, two significant children-photographers - Jacques H. Lartigue and Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz are considered as examples of creative power and experimental attempts of childhood. Taken by children pictures of happy past leads us to the nostalgic dimension of photography. Next part is dedicated to Benjamin's idea of collecting postcards and asks a question about a possibility of recreating the past from the images. The dilemma of photographic mediation between the past and present is outlined also in the last part of text where photography becomes a method of analyzing the architectural aspects of contemporary Berlin. A notion of 'afterwardness' is especially useful here. Photographers work as archaeologists of unconsciousness: their revealing of a past reminds 'digging for memories' and its interpretation.
EN
This article is concerned with memory in two important central European novels, Milan Kundera’s the Book of Laughter and Forgetting (Kniha smíchu a zapomnění, 1978) and György Konrád’s The Loser (A cinkos, 1980). It follows on thematically from a 1995 work by Richard Esbenshad, who devoted himself to these novels, though putting them in the wider historical contexts of the central European region. The article endeavours to interpret and comprehend collective and individual memory, which are essential to the two novels. Using different methods the same conclusion is reached: the memory of the individual and of the collective is unreliable, unstable, and manipulatable. Furthermore, it is also influenced by state institutions. Central Europe is a space in which memory was rewritten several times in the twentieth century, a process that did not of course stop with the Changes of late 1989. That is also why it pays to read these novels again and to contemplate their relevancy to the present day.
EN
The study deals with a collection of short stories 'Juzná posta' (Southern Post, 1974), written by Slovak prose author Ladislav Ballek. Interpretation is based on an assumption of mutual and strong coherence between all the stories. All of them are interweaving into a consistent epic work. The message of each of them exceeds intention of autonomous story. A child protagonist Ján Jurkovic is an important unifying element of the book. He is attracted by unknown, strange world of grown-ups. In most of the stories he is more than an observer, he is a person involved. But everything he can perceive from seeing and listening becomes a part of his private 'novel of education'. Though narration he also adopts some aspects of author's narrative form, the perspective is partly personalised - adapted to the child hero. The narrator uses a double perspective keeping both naturalness of the child's view and it's correction through eyes of an adult. Reminiscent modality is typical for the short stories of 'Juzná posta'. A hidden story - the story of human memory- in the Ballek's book is developed concurrently with the plots subordinated to explicit conveyed themes. The narrative cycle uses different generic bases. It is a characteristic transformation of the 'novel of education' and there are also elements of adventurous reading and generic structure of a story with a secret. An important structural element of the work is its country-space plan and geographical orientation. The location of south, also stressed by the title, bears its own culture and it serves also as a specific literary symptom. The character of countryside differs from the traditional vertical concept of literary topography of Slovakia, developed and petrified from the period of Romanticism, for which rigorous, monumental, ascetically cold picture of north was typical. Ballek depicts south as a place of culture, a Slovak-Hungarian boarder, formed by a man. Typical for his literary picture is a horizontal line containing sharp sensual impulses provoking mostly eyes and ears. The centre of his space in the entire book is a frontier town Palánk. The south boarder is a relatively open place where different cultural and linguistic influences merge into one another. In the context of the L. Ballek's works, 'Juzná posta' is the first book from an extensive prose cycle located to Palánk. This cycle belongs to the most important epic projects in the Slovak literature of the 70th and 80th.
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EN
Some data regarding neuropsychological research into memory are recalled dealing with relationships between memory and the functioning of cell arrangement, brain, intelligence, and emotions as subjective and objective conditions for functioning and manifesting of memory.
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2004
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tom 13
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nr 1(49)
211-224
EN
George Edelman is introduced as a neurobiologist who believes that all investigation of mind, consciousness and human condition in general must take into account the fact of the evolution. This ontology presupposed a specific ontology. Life on earth cannot be described by reference to physical laws only. Due to the Evolution ever more complicated systems are brought forth, and their constitution cannot be reduced to the constitution of earlier systems. On the other hand, however, new structures incorporate older structures, and, according to Edelman, living creatures are endowed with memory that help them retain their older structures.
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Content available remote INTERDISKURZIVITA SPOMÍNANIA V LITERÁRNOM DIELE CHRISTY WOLF
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EN
This article draws attention to the specific way in which the important German author Christa Wolf turns scientific findings on memory into literary material in her work. Remembrance and the associated self-exploration and self-knowledge form the core of what Christa Wolf calls subjective authenticity. Her key self-reflexive texts stage the process of writing, in which self-questioning intermingles with reflections on the process of remembrance and the literalization of the phenomenon of memory. In the 1990s, the author became the target of traumatic discourse practices in the non-literary space. The article also addresses the question of how interdiscursive remembrance contrasts with stereotypical interpretations of the past. Its potential may stimulate a critical distance from hegemonic discourse and the communication of differentiated knowledge.
19
Content available Thomasa Hobbesa koncepcja wyobraźni
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EN
The article deals with Thomas Hobbes’ conception of imagination. Hob-bes was aware of Greek and Latin origins of the term. According to him, imagination is nothing but a decaying sense. While reconstructing the draft of Hobbes’ theory of imagination, the author of the article describes the activity of mind as motion caused by bodies, and states that imagination can overcome the bounds of senses and memory. On the one hand, imagination is limited toexperience (in its reproductive function), but on the other, it can create newideas, conceptions or trains of thoughts (in its productive function).
EN
The ways of being and understanding of culture, memory and remembering are changeable, as are their mutual references. Culture can be an object of remembering as well as a remembering subject. It can be understood as a resource or as a process. If we understand culture as a remembered (“commemorated”) resource, a question arises what objects fill it. The objects are value-focused wholes composed of things, places, figures and events. If we understand culture as the process of remembering, we can distinguish activities that sustain (make manifest) remembering and produce (activate) remembering. The article ends with some remarks on “ruminating” understood as professional or amateur broadening of the knowledge of the past as well as education and promotion of this knowledge. Ruminating is treated here as an internal cultural process.
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