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Content available remote Historia społeczna: 20 lat po przełomie
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In the West the crisis of social history began much earlier due to a postmodern ciriticism of the paradigms of historiography from 1950–1970. In Poland the lack of trust towards social history was additionally intensified by the attempts of the communist party to render it a counterbalance to inconvenient political history. Studies on this aspect of the past, however, were not suspended after 1989, but the limits of social history still remain unclear since at present it does not possess a single dominating methodology. Today, social history is rather a collection of diverse interests, whose object is society although even the definition of the latter concept is ambiguous. The author conducted a survey of the state of research into the discussed domain in Poland in 1989–2009. He deals with the Middle Ages and modern times, listing pertinent publication series, and considers works about the social history of the nineteenth century, mentioning, i.a. the recently issued three-volume history of the intelligentsia edited by Jerzy Jedlicki. Finally, he discusses an epoch that is the focus of his own research work, i.e. the twentieth century, paying separate attention to the interwar period. The following remarks have been devoted to research concerning Polish society during the communist era – a topic that continues to stir political emotions. Contemporary research treats socio-economic problems and those with an anthropological tinge as equally making part of contemporary broad-sense social history. The future shape of this discipline can only inspire loose suppositions.
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The article presents the findings made by Polish historians as regards the dissemination and acceptance of European mediaeval thought on Polish soil. The beginnings of studies by Polish scholars dealing with assorted problems connected with the economy go back to the second half of the nineteenth century, and Stanislaw Smolka is regarded as one of the first historians who drew attention to the significance of this issue. The interests of the Polish historians were concentrated chiefly on explaining certain mechanisms ruling the economy and on recording the functioning of its practical symptoms. Pertinent Polish literature either neglected or relegated to the margin the reception of West European views about the economy in Poland during the Middle Ages. Inquiries whether and to what degree did foreign ideas influence the economic transformations occurring during the Middle Ages in Poland pertained mainly to such phenomena as the rights of the monarch in relation to the property of the subjects, the right to establish and collect taxes, usury or monetary questions.
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Content available remote Z tradic české historické balkanistiky
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The beginning of Balkan Studies is connected with major territorial, social and political changes in the Balkans in the second half of the 19th century. In the Czech environment, Balkan Studies were mixed up with interest in Slavic issues to a large extent. The founding personality was Konstantin Jirecek (1854-1918), one of the co-creators of Balkan Studies on the international level. Unfortunately, as he did not live in the Czech environment, he did not educate his Czech followers. This task was fulfilled by Jaroslav Bidlo (1868-1937) who integrated Balkan Studies into his concept of the studies of the history of Slavs in Eastern and South-eastern Europe. The development of Balkan Studies strengthened after the establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1918, partly due to political motives. Two followers of Bidlo played a crucial role in the further development: Milada Paulova (1891-1970) in Prague and Josef Macurek (1901-1992), who later established a course in Balkan Studies at Masaryk University in Brno.
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The essay explores the interpretation of the French Revolution as symbolic break between 'traditional' and 'modern' society in 19th - and 20th-century historiography. The revolution, seen as a 'crossroads of history' by its participants at the time, whether supporters or opponents, forced thinkers to look for answers to the question of the direction, progress, continuity or discontinuity of the historical 'process'. I have tried to (re) construct several key interpretational schema that in turn were conditioned by political-ideological orientations. Basically there were four lines or 'stories' - conservative, liberal, republican and socialist. The 'conservative' version (from Burke to Gaxotti) rejected the revolution as a pathological phenomenon that deviated from the logic of the current of history. The liberal line more or less accepted the revolution, but only its first phase regarded as a revolution of freedom (1789-92), from which liberalism derived its own legitimacy; it rejected the 'democratic' phase of the revolution - the Terror - as a deviation from the logic of the (beneficial) revolution itself. Republican historiography emphasised and praised the initial phase of the First Republic (1792-95), in this way providing support for the legitimising foundation of the Third Republic. Socialist historiography (especially in the 20th century) encouraged favourable re-evaluation of the period of Jacobin dictatorship and thus provided a logical link between the French Revolution and the Soviet Revolution. The final section of the article is devoted to Francois Furet, one of several contemporary historians who have tried to interpret the revolution in a different way that cuts right across the political spectrum (with a mention of the fact that in recent years yet more alternative ways of bridging the classic ideological-political views of the revolution have emerged).
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Content available remote POUR UNE HISTORIOGRAPHIE ENGAGÉE: OR WHAT'S WRONG WITH THE HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS
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The present paper intends to voice a series of critical observations based on the author's thirty-five years in the field, while at the same time offering a number of suggestions as to how the history of linguistics may improve its scholarship, and its image. Several years ago, members of the Henry Sweet Society got to read a lengthy quotation from Frederick Neumeyer's introduction to his 1996 book 'Generative Linguistics: A historical perspective' in which he reports that many of his colleagues 'feared that (he) would become tarred with the brush of being an 'historian of linguistics', who, (-), occupy a status level even lower than that of a 'semiotician' ' (HSS Bulletin 26.25). Newmeyer explained 'That this attitude results from the belief that most people who write on the history of linguistics have only the most minimal training in modern linguistics and devote their careers to attempting to demonstrate that their pet medieval grammarian or philosopher thought up some technical term before somebody's else's pet medieval grammarian or philosopher' (1996: 2). This is no doubt a caricature of what most of us have been doing during the past twenty and more years, but the suspicion may be lurking that on some aspects Newmeyer's friends may not have been entirely off the mark. One does not have to share Rüdiger Schreyer's more recent assessment either according to which 'nobody takes much interest in, or notice of, linguistic historiography - nobody in the big world beyond the ivory towers (of academe) and nobody in the linguistic community that is the natural habitat of the linguistic historiographer' (2000: 206), and maybe this would be too much to expect: 'beyond the ivory towers' even Noam Chomsky would not have become as widely known had he not become a critic of US foreign policy. Peter Schmitter is no doubt right in saying that it is not enough to write 'intelligent treatises on the necessity and usefulness of historiographic research', but his concession (Schmitter 2003a: 214) that he himself has no concrete proposal to make as to how to remedy the situation is not too encouraging. It may well be that many practitioners of linguistic historiography have become too self-satisfied and inward looking over the years, given the availability of three journals, several bulletins, an ever-increasing number of colloquia, conferences, and other international meetings around the world. It seems to me that there is enough blame to go around. One may be more inclined to share Peter Schmitter's disappointment that the findings of linguistic historiography have not successfully entered into textbooks, dictionaries of linguistic terminology, and other such places.
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Content available remote Chłop polski w teorii i praktyce
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The intention of this article is to analyze the state of research about the peasants and the nation upon the example of the most relevant publications from the last decade. At the same time, the article indicates three prime problems faced by the researchers: the connection of theory and empirical quantities, the formulation of good definitions (conceptualization), and suitable explanations. First and foremost, it was proved that the process of joining theory and empirical quantities has not been resolved properly; at the same time, emphasis has been placed on valuable exceptions (Mędrzecki, Olszewski, Bończa-Tomaszewski). Second, similarly critical assessments relate to definitions created in the analysed works. Even the most sophisticated proposal, i.e. the one made by Struve (subjective identification, objective national identity), is still insufficient to reflect the complicated nature of national phenomena, since it does not take into consideration the national discourse. Third, against this background the explanation of national processes appears to be even more complicated. True, researchers have created numerous interesting descriptive typologies (Kieniewicz, Mędrzecki), but such difficult problems as linking objective and subjective factors, micro- and macro-analyses and diachronic and synchronic dimensions still have to be resolved; the same holds true for the construction of a complete explanation that would encompass the social context and relations between social subjects and cognitive processes. Each of the discussed publications proposes its own solution of these problems, but does not elucidate all in a satisfactory manner.
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The article discusses the so-called turn towards things, which became apparent in British and American humanities at the end of the 1990s. Interest in things has a long tradition, but the research questions addressed to things as well as assorted approaches and methods of their analysis have undergone changes. By following the example of Bruno Latour, numerous present-day researchers indicate that things should not be treated as passive subjects, dependent upon people, but as legitimate members of the human and non-human community which, albeit deprived of intention and consciousness, do possess a specific agency. In analysing texts by Igor Kopytoff, Cornelius Holtorf and Andrew Jones, which constitute examples of a biographic approach towards things, the authoress demonstrates that it contains discernible features characteristic of traditional epistemology: a personification of things, which is an expression of anthropocentrism, together with genealogical and genetic thinking. The biographical approach, however, is accompanied by an interesting proposal of ascribing agency to things, i.e. the impact exerted by things upon the establishment and transformation of interpersonal relations. Generally speaking, the relation between things and people becomes redefined, and objects are granted the status of active participants in the life processes in which they not only exist, but also act. The thing appears to be 'relational', and prime research emphasis is placed on studying relations and not things as such. We are dealing, therefore, with thinking in the categories of differences between man and thing, although this is a hierarchic difference, in which man constitutes a point of reference and an exemplary way in which the thing should be perceived. The 'turn towards things' thus entails a certain paradox: on the one hand, the thing is conceived as 'the other' about which biographies are written, and hence is subjected to anthropomorphisation; on the other hand, 'spokesmen of the thing' seek possibilities for departing from the anthropocentric and personifying perception or one which treats things as fetishes.
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The author’s intention is to present an overview of the history of the Czech Byzantine studies after the Second World War based on the archival documents, because this topic was not examined yet in the Czech historiography. The post-war reality and changes of political system in Czechoslovakia after February 1948 were negative reflected in the Czechoslovak byzantinology. The author describes a situation on the field of Czech Byzantine studies in Prague between the years 1945 and 1970, in which the Byzantine studies, including history, history of art, philology, philosophy, and archaeology, were studied in the Slavonic Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences suspended in 1963, and at the Charles University in Prague. She dedicates a man part of her contribution to the explication of the importance of Byzantinoslavica, the international journal for Byzantine studies, in the post-war Czech byzantinology and history and the importance of Byzantine studies for the cultural and scientific development European nations and peoples.
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In the article I have attempted to describe a 1681 semi-forgotten work of an erudite French Benedictine Jean Mabillon (1632-1707): the De re diplomatica libri sex. Although it is true that this book is just one of his several works, I regard it as the essential one. The work was written by Mabillon to defend the reputation of France and the Benedictine Order, and in particular of the royal abbey of Saint Denis. The good reputation of Saint Denis was endangered by Papenbroeck who came out against the authenticity of many old Benedictine documents (in particular charters) allegedly dating back to the 6th century. By using dated and authentic documents, Mabillon surveyed every aspect of mediaeval charters, creating the field of study known as diplomatics. Mabillon is not the exclusive author of the work: almost the entire 4th book was written by his fellow-worker Dom Michaele Germain. The work, however, was praised by author's contemporaries (Papenbroeck himself was one of the first who recognised the value of the Mabillon's work), until a broad European Republic of Letters finally lost interest in this book. Its renaissance in Western Europe dawned thanks to Benjamin Guerard, and the heyday of studying this work dates from the turn of last decades of the 19th century. The main aim of this study was to remember the work as an example of pioneering and epoch-making works.
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The Slovak historiography has been stubbornly ignoring the progress that has been made in fascist studies in recent years. This article seeks to provide an overview of the development in comparative fascist studies, with an emphasis on the “new consensus” historians. The main focus is on Roger Griffin’s definition of fascism as a genus of political ideology, whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultra-nationalism. This article also argues that, if properly used, Griffin’s definition can provide a valuable heuristic tool for recognizing and analysing fascist movements.
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Based on Facta et dicta memorabilia by Valerius Maximus, the author discusses a type of moralising history in the ancient times and selected examples of its fates in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque periods in Europe,Poland in particular. The quoted translations of excerpts from Book IV indicate the need to effect a Polish translation of the text. 
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Adapted version of the text presented at the colloquium organised in Prague on 12 November 2019 by the Institute of Art History of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS) on the 85th anniversary of PhDr. Karel Chytil’s death. The text deals with the institutional and cultural political aspects of Chytil’s career as an art historian, museologist, and lecturer.
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Antony Beevor seems to be one of the most popular historians of World War II. The presented paper is a research trial of analysis his books by taking into the centre his historiography narration by confronting it with some aspects of creative writing. The text is divided into small chapters and follows: how different methods of narration are connected with romanticism, suspense, comedy and terrifying moments of war. Beevor writes history from the point of view of the soldiers as well as all those who decide, but he characterizes them by using the key of literary narration. The question of hero in the narration is analyzed by some achievements of Polish theory of history (Jerzy Topolski). The other chapters are dedicated to conceptualize the issues of history visualization and finally how the suspense (theory of J. Dąbała) as the method of narration is used by Beevor. It is not widely known that Beevor started his writer career as the author of suspense/ thriller stories and his success of being historian is basically founded on using the novel method into the non-fictional historical book.
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In historical research into the origins of the first Piast state, great significance has been attached to the hypothesis about its establishment by external conquest. In response to beliefs of this type the tendency has been to show the autonomy of the first Piast state, and its struggle with the Empire arising out efforts to establish the independence of the young state. In the 20th century historiography has also emphasized the importance of internal conquest. Relatively recently historians have started to pay attention to those aspects of the written sources showing the Piasts as rulers aspiring to find their place within the aristocracy of the Empire. The Piast dynasty appear in the written sources as allies of the Empire, in which role they also appear in dedications. They were also, as was also the case with the aristocracy of the Empire, bound to the Emperor by bonds of fidelity, or found themselves in circles opposed to the Emperor. This paper refers to not only the character of their relationship, but also to changes in the structure of it. The first representative of the Piast dynasty who is mentioned by name, turns up in the masterpiece of Widukind, who dedicated his work to the Otto’s daughter Mathilda. Appearing in the historical record for the very first time, Mieszko is presented by Widukind as ‘rex Licikavicorum’. In imperial tradition a ‘Rex Licikavicorum’ is never mentioned earlier among the tribal ‘rulers” coming into Empire’s sphere of interests. The designation ‘rex’ is also a kind of title given to an administrator of one of the smaller territorial entities. The ruler of the Polanie tribe is mentioned by Widukind in the context of an account of his relative Wichman. Nevertheless, the context of those historical facts at our disposal depict the phenomenon of the gradual integration of the Piast ruler into a political and cultural system acceptable to the annalist. Widukind also designated Mieszko as ‘amicus imperatoris’. An interesting written source referring to the contacts between the Piasts and the Empire is the ‘Life of St. Udalric’. It mentions an oath made by Mieszko when wounded in his arm by a poisoned arrow. Mieszko swore in the face of death to send to St. Udalric as a votive of a hand made of silver, if he would restore him to good health. It is worthwhile emphasizing that Mieszko regained his strength thanks to the mediation of one of the allies of Otto I. The marriage with Oda (probably in the year 979/980) was also significant. Thanks to this marriage Mieszko found himself within the ranks of the aristocracy of the Empire. From this moment onwards we can talk about the considerable promotion of the Piasts in the hierarchy of the Empire. Perhaps with this marriage came also the presence of Mieszko in the obituarial sources from within the territory of the Empire. Those obituaries were included in the so-called ‘obituary annals from Fulda’. Piasts are also mentioned in Lüneburg, Regensburg and Bamberg. The last place, Bamberg, performs a special role. Piasts were at some point the official protectors of the Emperor’s grave there. Mieszko thirty years on was treated like one of the last dukes of the Reich.
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Based on an analysis of the so-called topoi (loci communes) in the Latin milieu (meaning 'pagans sitting on the ground while eating') and Byzantine milieu (meaning 'drinking from the skull-goblet of a defeated enemy'), not all topoi should be regarded a mere literary constant, as the literary scholarship declares with regard to Curtius' definition. It is necessary to distinguish between really constant characteristics of the topos, i.e. a mere literary function ('literary topos') and reality, where the topos firstly records true historical reality and secondly, when this reality is used in a different historical context in order to outline a different, new historical reality, thus being the current time testimony - in both cases, the topos is a historical resource (i.e. 'historical topos').
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The paper analyses the historiography of the „history of workers“ in the period of Slovak State (1939 – 1945) until the year 1989. In addition to the general analysis, the aim is to answer the question how far (if at all) may the „history of workers“ be identified with the labor history in historiography before 1989? Secondarily, the study provides a brief description of the thematic publications examined to find out what specific area and themes were elaborated in historiography before 1989 and how particular research trends were developed.
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Historical research in Slovakia is done in the form of projects. The system aims to improve the competitiveness of scientific work and the quality of the results. The grant commission of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic are ultimately responsible for deciding on the approval and financing of projects. In the process of evaluating projects they must also solve questions of an ethical and moral character.
EN
This study is devoted to the German conservative intellectual Joachim Fest, an influential journalist and cultural publicist of the post-war period. Above all, he was best known internationally as the exceptionally successful author of popular books and films on Nazism and its protagonists, Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. A Czech edition of his Memoirs, highly stylized and specifically manipulative of the past, provides the impetus for this critical contemplation of his life and work. The Memoirs are then analysed in the second part of this review, with an emphasis on making the retro-active self-stylization of the German nationalist and conservative elites clear to understand.
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This review article deals with the research into the history of Charles University from its founding in 1348 to the mid-15th century as reflected by the rich and substantial historiographical works of Frantisek Smahel, whose Selected Studies were published last year.
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Content available remote El concepto de perífrasis verbal: su origen y datos historiográficos
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The main objective of this study is to analyse the evolution of the concept of verbal periphrasis from an old rhetorical figure to the modern and complex grammatical category, which is present in every Roman Language.
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