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EN
The following study seeks to give an overview of Polish borrowings included in the Historical Dictionary of Slovak Language. The paper deals with e.g. botanical, zoological, administrative and legal, anatomical, culinary, military, naval and religious polonisms and partly also with their etymology, traditional forms of orthography and Slovak phonemes in Polish borrowings. It deals with their adaptation to Slovak declination, conjugation and word formation and with the geographical origin of these words.
2
Content available remote POLONISMS IN LATVIAN DIALECTS OF LATGALE (Polonizmy w lotewskich gwarach Latgalii)
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EN
The aim of the article is discussion of influence of the Polish language on Latvian dialects in the area of Latgale. The close contiguity as well as genetic nearness of the Polish, Belorussian and Russian languages makes it difficult to state categorically which of them was a direct source for Latvian. Knowledge of settlement in the area of Latvia does not facilitate this task as these three Slavonic nations considerably reinforced former Livonia and Courland. The material basis of the discussion constitute two studies - dialectal atlas of Latvian 'Latviesu valodas dialektu atlants' and dialectal texts from Latgale 'Augszemnieku dialekta tekst. Latgaliskas izloksnes'. The article presents analysis of names which may have appeared in Latvian dialects from Polish. Polish (as well as Belorussian or Russian) could have equivalently affected the range of lexical Latgalian dialects and neighbouring dialectal groups. These are 'bocjans' (stork), 'butelka' (bottle), koldra (quilt), mjantuzs, mentuzs (burbot - kind of fish), skvarkas (crackling). A separate group is formed by names for which the Polish language (or other Slavonic languages) was a medium for borrowing words of German origin: 'cegla' (brick), kartufelis (potato), 'skuoda' (place in a field damaged by animals), 'selma' (knave), 'svagars' (brother in law). Among Slavonic words there are such words with which it is impossible to decide on the direction of borrowing because of similarity of forms and common proto-Slavonic source: 'malina' (raspberry), 'sawa' (owl), 'zapaks' (smell). The source of polonisms in Latvian dialects were words belonging to general Polish. Therefore the argument about considerable influence of Poles who represent higher social strata seems to be confirmed. Moreover one can indicate that Polish North-Eastern dialect of the Polish borderland must have affected Latgalian dialects however it is difficult to indicate to what extent.
EN
The article presents the results of research into borrowings from English in a corpus of Polish hip-hop lyrics comprising ten recent albums. Classifications of encountered traces of English influence are supplemented with a quantitative analysis and a discussion of the various roles Anglicisms are hypothesised to play in this context.
4
Content available remote Psané podoby přejatých slov
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Bohemistyka
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2013
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tom 13
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nr 1
7 - 14
EN
The article focuses on the problem of graphic adaptation of new foreign loan-words (namely anglicisms) and their varied forms used in the contemporary Czech language. The author concentrates on several selected types of lexemes with the help of their evaluation by the youth aged 12 to 18 years, and comments on the linguistic character of their forms (standard or substandard, semantically modified, stylistically symptomatic etc.).
5
Content available remote THE ROLE OF BANKS IN UTILIZATION OF THE EU FUNDS
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EN
The favorable economic policy can trigger positive reactions from the business entities resulting in increasing the level of investments (capital, technological, information as well as in knowledge) and economy competitiveness. The level of investments depends, among others, on accessibility of investment funding. In most cases, enterprises fund the developmental investments with own as well as external sources. Use of the EU funds in business development reduces the costs of investment considerably because it is possible to obtain up to 50% grant-in-aid after completing the modernization project. Enterprises must, however, fund the investment project first to be able to apply for reimbursement of a part of the developmental expenditures. Until that time they use the support of commercial banks, which take active part in programming and utilization of funds allocated for Poland. This paper shows the role of banks in utilization of the EU funds allocated for development of Polish enterprises.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on a very interesting yet little known part of the American slang lexicon, namely Slavic-Yiddish lexical borrowings. Yiddish is generally considered as the language that has given the most new forms to American slang. Although its contribution has been limited to some three hundred words, they are enormously popular and enjoy a high frequency in usage, as evidenced by numerous occurrences in the popular media. There have been numerous studies done on Yiddish borrowings in slang but none of them focused specifically on their Slavic-Yiddish component, that is, borrowings from Yiddish which themselves originated from Slavic languages. The authoress decided to remedy this situation. In this paper she will analyze over sixty Slavic-Yiddish lexical borrowings collected from the U.S. media which she has encountered while doing research on slang in the New York University Library and the New York Public Library (USA).
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