Education represents a significant segment of society, surroundings of children’s integration into the Czech national society and also into Austrian country. Therefore, it is necessary to involve it into the general view of reversing the Austro-Hungarian monarchy into the Czechoslovak Republic. The general Czech context is appropriately completed by an example of Dvůr Králové nad Labem – a patriotic Czech town on a language border, which insisted on the development of Czech education. In the years of World War I, war poverty exposed, children grew up without their fathers, education was interrupted even for months because of lack of teachers or fuel. Schools were a tool of Austrian state propaganda. Although the changeover to Czechoslovakia was ostensibly a fundamental change, actually it was a slow process without real sanctions against even the most pro-Austrian active teachers.