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Numerous studies have identified and explored the factors that affect order information processing in verbal working memory (WM), whereas little is known about order maintenance in visual WM. To gain better insight into the possible mechanisms of the representing order in visual WM, we assessed the extent of serial position and item distance effects on visual WM. 20 students performed a visual WM task. They were asked to encode and maintain either the identity or temporal order of four visual stimuli. The results revealed recency and distance effects congruent with previous studies of verbal WM however no primacy effect in accuracy results was detected. Distance was revealed to be closely intertwined with recency, making it difficult to estimate their separate effects on order recognition. These results suggest that order coding in visual WM involves the use of a magnitude of codes similar to those employed in number processing and verbal WM.
The importance of Peter’s position among the apostles started to be increasingly recognized in church tradition in the Middle Ages through a focus on the primacy and authority of Peter and his followers. In the writings of Augustine we find some reflections on primacy, but they are not the major part of his thoughts about Peter. In this article attention is paid on selected writings and sermons where the bishop of Hippo presents Peter as the one to deny Christ at first and to be entrusted with the guidance of the church at last. Peter thus becomes the example of a shepherd. Shepherds in turn become images of Peter as an example for the church and individual Christians. Augustine’s thought originates in the writings of Ambrose, Hilarius, and Optatus, and this is also underlined in this contribution.
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