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Content available remote Mechanizmy, procesy i oddziaływania w fitoremediacji
The following factors inhibit the use of plants for the recultivation of the environment contaminated with organic compounds: their bioavailability, take-up, transport, and accumulation. Moreover, a very important factor that affects effective phytoremediation process is phytotoxic influence of the uptaken chemical compounds on the plant's physiological and biochemical processes. Before infiltration into a plant, detoxification system is activated, which causes the following impact in rhizosphere: liberation of xenobiotics-degrading enzymes through plant roots into rhizosphere and collaboration of microorganisms and higher plants.
Lead, similar to other heavy metals and abiotic factors, causes many unfavorable changes at the subcellular and molecular levels in plant cells. An increased level of superoxide anion in Pisum sativum root cells treated with 1 mM Pb(NO3)2 evidenced oxidative stress conditions. We found increased activities of enzymatic components of the antioxidative system (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cytosol, mitochondrial and peroxisomal fractions isolated from root cells of Pisum sativum grown in modified Hoagland medium in the presence of lead ions (0.5 or 1 mM). Two isoenzyme forms of superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) found in different subcellular compartments of pea roots were more active in Pb-treated plants than in control. Increased amount of alternative oxidase accompanied by an increased activity of this enzyme was found in mitochondria isolated from lead-treated roots. These results show that plants storing excessive amounts of lead in roots defend themselves against the harmful oxidative stress caused by this heavy metal.
Content available remote Prospects of geothermal water Use in cultivation of Spirulina
Spirulina has been studied due to its commercial importance as a source of essential amino acids, protein, vitamins, fatty acids etc. Most of the culture systems in use today are open ponds. The new approach proposed in this paper is to use the geothermal water as a medium for microalgae cultivation. Poland has beneficial conditions for wide geothermal use, as one of the environmentally friendly and sustainable renewable energy sources. In the planned research, geothermal water could be used to prepare microalgal culture medium, to heat greenhouses with bioreactors used for the growth of Spirulina, to dry the obtained biomass, as well as to heat the ground in foil tunnels. Using geothermal water gives the possibility to produce algae in open ponds covered with greenhouses and to cultivate plants during winter. The obtained algae can be used for the production of algal bio-products (e.g. homogenates), having the potential application in plant cultivation.
The presence of the single metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) induces ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and causes oxidative stress in plants. While applied in two-element combinations, trace metals impact organisms in a more complex way. To assess the resultant effect we treated the pea grown hydroponically with the trace metals in variants: CuPb, CuCd, CuZn, PbCd, ZnPb, ZnCd in concentrations of 25 µM for each metal ion. Abiotic stress inhibited root elongation growth, decreased biomass production, induced changes in root colour and morphology. It changed rate of ROS production, malondialdehyde content, increased activity and altered gene expression of defence enzymes (superoxide dysmutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase).
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