The article analyses the influence of Vladimír Šmilauer on the character of the Journal of Modern Philology (Časopis pro moderní filologii, ČMF). Šmilauer was associated with the Journal for Modern Philology as an author and an editor for Slavic studies (1939–1951). The article describes the main linguistic/philological topics contributed to the magazine by Šmilauer (Slovak studies and the history of the Slovak language, new Czech, e.g. orthography, reports on foreign literature, etc.). The period of Šmilauer’s work at the ČMF falls into a time of socially problematical political systems: the Nazi protectorate after 1939 and the communist terror after 1948. On the example of the case of Šmilauer, we will show how and when political systems were directly reflected in the philological content of the Journal for Modern Philology.