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EN
The aim of the article is to look at the thoughts of one of the most prominent Polish sociologists - Florian Znaniecki - and to ask the question to what extent they may be useful for present-day social and migration studies. The hypothesis furthered is that migration literature should go beyond the seminal book on Polish peasants in America by Znaniecki and Thomas and focus more on the Polish sociologist’s early thoughts. The article emphasizes the importance of cultural anthropology and culturalism not only in migration studies but also in a broad range of social studies, including the assessment of post-communist transition.
EN
The authoress discusses our contemporary revival of interest in the title issue, in association with transformations within humanities, which perceive a dimension of involvement in both the activity of those being studied and the research actions taken. While discussing involvement, its emotional and axiotic contexts should not be neglected. The European philosophical tradition, especially, the British thought of 17th and 18th centuries, has tended to combine the issue of feelings with axiology. In the field of phenomenology, Max Scheler directly combined feelings with axiological issues in his non-formalist ethics and phenomenology of feelings project. As for cultural anthropology, Clifford Geertz's project called 'interpretative anthropology' has been treated as legitimised anthropology of experiencing things. Opposing an intra-psychical 'localisation' of feelings, this scholar was of opinion that the thesis claiming their cultural constitution had been relatively well proved in the context of cultural anthropology, albeit feelings are one of the most indefinable and heterogeneous aspects of our life.
Slavia Orientalis
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2009
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tom 58
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nr 2
153-186
EN
In the paper cultural anthropology is engaged to discuss typology of figures in Anton Chekhov's drama. The typology of figures is based on William Lloyd Warner proposal of social classes as well as on methodology of Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) which is used to analyze semantic deposit of Semantic Matrix (SM) of particular figures as the gentry, a merchant, a doctor, a teacher, a professional serviceman, a clerk and a domestic servant.
EN
The two most significant turning points of the last decades in cultural anthropology were tied to the reflective tide and the influence of feminist theories. Drawing on these, the author is considering various approaches to the sphere of human emotions. The common assumption is to treat emotions as part of culture - not an element of animal nature (Darwin) or subconscious determinism (Freud). The agreement with the assumption of understanding culture as source and tool of expressing emotions does not imply unanimity regarding the way of writing about it. Reflexive and feminist anthropologists suggest own strategies concerning both writing articles and field research.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2022
|
tom 77
|
nr 9
711 – 722
EN
Currently, one can encounter numerous contributions that apply phenomenology and its approach to experience in the fields of anthropological and ethnographic research. The convergence of phenomenology and anthropology has its own reasons. I will first trace the thematic areas of this collaboration and present specific projects, and secondly specify the questions and applied methods that phenomenology brings to the discourse of the specialized sciences. In a third step, I will build on the original relationship between phenomenology and anthropology that leads us to the work of H. Plessner; that is not only meant to be a historical look back, but also an updating of such themes that can be productively re-developed in the present. In particular, I will ask what might be the position of H. Plessner in the current context, since his works are absent in contemporary authors.
EN
The author discusses the ethnographic method of research popular in anthropology and sociology, often known as fieldwork or, simply, ethnography. This methodological concept of scientific research process derives from two afore-mentioned branches of science, which results in researchers approaching some research procedures differently. However, it is a positive feature of ethnography, bringing appropriate conditions for the interdisciplinary approach to this method. Ethnography can also be applied to other disciplines, like economy, education or information and book studies, which is discussed to some extent in the article.
7
Content available remote Cultural Character of Great Changes in Science
100%
EN
The paper discusses the title issue of 'the cultural character of great changes in science' in two stages. In the first, preliminary stage, the 15 general theses are introduced, which are, in the opinion of the author of the paper, useful in a description and an explanation of great changes in science. These theses stem from the achievements of many disciplines, such as history of philosophy, history of religious believes, history of ideas, history of science, philosophy of culture, history of culture, cultural anthropology and sociology of culture. In the second stage, the paper analyses several cases of great changes in science from ancient times to nowadays, showing an apparent - thanks to the historical analysis - a close connection between science and other parts of culture, such as technology, art (such as literature), philosophy, religion and theology.
8
Content available remote Antropologia, historia a sprawa ukrainska. O taktyce pogranicza
88%
Lud
|
2011
|
tom 95
45-66
EN
There is a clear rift between actual aims and the potential of cultural anthropology, as the discipline directed at critical and reflexive study of contemporaneity, and its place in university structures and state institutions in Poland. This phenomenon is accompanied by the stereotype of ethnology and anthropology in common sense, inherited from ethnography, which in the past time was entangled in the politics of “folk”. The author discusses the reasons for the classification of anthropology as an auxiliary science of history, asks questions about scientific politics and emphasises the significance of an academic ethnographic laboratory as an original educational project. The author describes two examples presenting her experience of cooperation with historians. One is cooperation between the historians and the anthropologist at the Expert Committee of the Ministry of Education for the improvement of history and geography textbooks. The other is the cooperation between the anthropologist and the historian during the research project on contemporary cultural practices in the Polish-Ukrainian borderland. Both types of cooperation are linked by interest in the borderland, the concept which opens up a space for negotiations between anthropology and history. This concept has many meanings and is metaphorical, which could be a methodological trap. Therefore it was presented as the key category of those two specific projects. In the end the author describes her own research project as an attempt at the implementation of the critical anthropology of the borderland.
Lud
|
2010
|
tom 94
15-24
EN
(Polish title: (Antropologia kulturowa/etnologia wobec dwoistosci globalizacji. Globalizacja jako element swiata zobiektywizowanego i globalizm jako ideologia). On the one hand globalisation and its consequences create an objective reality and on the other - a subjective reality, which transforms into ideology, i.e. globalism. The author notices both the separateness and autonomy of globalisation as a process and socio-economic state and globalism as ideology and the relations between them. He poses a question about the chronology of the globalisation process, also as regards the evolution of global science, including global cultural anthropology. He is aware of the delays in modern anthropological research on globalisation, but he tries to discover their provenance in earlier studies. In his opinion the involvement of anthropologists in studies on globalisation and development of a programme of such studies not only creates an opportunity for better understanding of the phenomenon but also for further development of anthropology.
Ikonotheka
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2008
|
tom 21
213-224
EN
Modernity has developed complex mechanisms of esthetic valorization, based on formal and artistic qualities judged by the taste. However, as Pierre Bourdieu has shown in his studies, the judgment of taste is in fact the main modern means for social differentiation. At the same time, according to David Freedberg, these mechanisms obscure the inborn human attitude towards images which consists of mixing up the represented with the representation, and subsequently prevent modern educated audiences from natural response to the images classified as art. Modern perception of religious imagery can be a sensitive example of a field where the classificatory role of the esthetic judgment is particularly well visible because the religious purpose of an image calls both for different hierarchy of values than the one found in the modern field of art, and different image ontology. The article is based on field material consisting of in-depth interviews with Catholic believers, conducted in Wesola near Warsaw, and three major pilgrimage sites of Poland: Czestochowa, Lichen and Kalwaria Paclawska. Wesola was chosen because of the outstanding decoration of its parish church of Divine Providence, executed by a modern painter from Cracow, Jerzy Nowosielski and highly appreciated by art critics and specialists. However, the style of decoration proved very unfamiliar and strange for the local believers. The article attempts to show the hierarchy of values used by the believers towards the religious images, and then to explain this hierarchy both in terms of Joanna Tokarska-Bakir's interpretation of image ontology in so-called 'folk piety'. In spite of similar understanding of image ontology apparently shared by the artist and the believers, social distinction made by the mechanisms of esthetic judgment resulted in form unfamiliar to them and lack of appreciation of the work.
11
Content available remote Na wozie Maragaty
75%
EN
The aim of the present article is to outline a very interesting phenomenon in cultural anthropology which is the very ancient and enigmatic presence of the Maragatos, human cultural isolates, in the mountainous purlieus of Spanish town Astorga, who despite of inhabiting the crossroads of several international centuries-old routes of trade and pilgrimage have managed to conserve their isolated and endogamous customs.
ARS
|
2010
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tom 43
|
nr 1
3-23
EN
The article focuses on a group of prominent sacral spaces of the early medieval Croatian state (e.g. in Crkvina in Biskupija, Zazvic or Cetina) displaying some characteristics of the contemporary Carolingian architecture, including one of the most innovative and impressive features of medieval architecture in general, the westwork. It argues for a broader perspective, including cultural anthropology and linguistics into consideration, i.e. that the tower-like structure - the westwork - has connections to superstructures of contemporary early Slavic houses, and that the westwork is 'anti-renovation', 'anti-Carolingian', thus opening new ways for the artistic development of original medieval forms.
EN
Migration of Polish citizens in recent times is a very current issue. In my article I want to explain this highly sophisticated phenomenon on the example of Polish migration to Norway. The scope of my research includes the last two hundred years, during which it has been possible to observe a few different, in the genesis, waves of migration – the nineteenth century (the Polish insurgents and the Polish Jews), WWII (soldiers and forced laborers), and both the political from 1980’s and the largest, economic migration after the Polish accession to the European Union in 2004. The main issue the article focuses on is the style and quality of life of the Poles, who voluntarily or forced by the circumstances, settled in Norway. The article also focuses on cultural confrontation, which automatically followed that migration, often accompanied by acculturation, contrculturation, transculturation or cultural integration. Among other subjects raised in the article there are also the reasons causing the present high migratory activity of the Poles, the largest group of foreigners living in Norway today.
EN
The growing popularity of archaeology and the amassment of new archaeological researches compelled archaeologist to make an interpretations based on different domains of humanistic sciences. This interdisciplinary studies allow to look at the problem of reconstructing the past from a different perspectives. Since most significant issues had multiple causes, interdisciplinary studies provide a more comprehensive understanding of issues. The cooperation of different domains of sciences (archaeology, ethnology and cultural anthropology) is essential for studying the past. It is particularly important for the Brazilian Amazon where the great part of cultural processes could not be seen in an archaeological context.
Lud
|
2010
|
tom 94
191-220
EN
(Polish title: Studia nad literatura ludowa, etnografia, etnologia, antropologia. Kierunki zainteresowan kształtujacej sie w polowie XIX wieku polskiej etnologii/antropologii kulturowej). The aim of the article is to discuss the importance of mid 19th century (1840-1865) for the development of Polish ethnology and cultural anthropology. On the basis of publications and archival materials from that time the author presents ethnological/anthropological interests and studies. Using the terms applied at that time, the author identifies studies of folk literature, ethnography, ethnology and anthropology and indicates the subject and problems of those studies. Folk literature was no longer the main object of interest; it was more often connected with a broader scope of folk culture, studied within the framework of ethnography. A concept of ethnology that focused not on the people - a social layer, but on nationalities and peoples - ethnic groups was developed. Ethnology understood in this way comprised ethnography as an empirical science, aimed at collecting materials. The concept of anthropology as a science with the broadest scope, i.e. comprising the human being belonging to both the world of biology and culture was also known. Polish ethnological/anthropological research was pursued on the basis of the knowledge of the achievements of European science, mainly German and French. The conditions connected with the lack of a national state were also important for the directions of studies. Besides, the lack of the national state made establishment of scientific institutions much more difficult, which, in turn, prevented professionalisation of researchers. Studies pursued in mid 19th c. did not result in the identification of ethnology/cultural anthropology as an independent scientific discipline. However, they created foundations for its emergence at the turn of the 19th c.
EN
The article - based on the latest results - reconstructs the main steps of human evolution. It identifies the most important 'revolutions' and analyses their effects on the 'behaviour-programmes' of the Homo. These 'programmes' are built on each other, and determine the individual and social behaviour of humans. These evolutionary steps and behaviour-programmes are analysed by different social sciences, such as human ecology, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and subsequently by cultural anthropology. The article argues that it is useful to differentiate between the steps of the emergence of the modern human and symbolic 'revolution' and later, between the neolith and institutional revolution.
EN
The author deals with the messianic traits of a hero who is a protagonist of contemporary mainstream film. Basic assumption of this paper is observation that despite the so-called “end of grand narratives” proclaimed by postmodern philosophers at the end of the last century, there are phenonema in culture clearly contradicting former predictions: renaissance of a novel, rising popularity of historical and fantastic stories and new heroes with complex character and genuine humanistic qualities. According to the author this proves the fact that human need for transpersonal values, moral patterns and stories carrying the message of meaningfulness of human destiny, is historically stable. The paper examines various representations of film hero within the broader context of social meanings in cinema (social dimension of film). The author describes psychoanalytic and anthropological concepts of hero as well as Jesus Christ as an archetype of Savior. Some of his special traits serve as a model for conceptualization of messianic hero and his basic characteristics. The text provides numerous examples of strong and weak heroes who alternately resurfaced the mainstream film through the decades. The author believes that the former narcissistic action hero and insecure hero is being replaced with more authentic and vibrant hero: a character who is vulnerable and commited to sacrifice in favor of others at the same time.
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