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PL
Against the background of civilizational development, the 21st century appears as a time of great opportunities of self-development and general progress but also as a time of various new leisure activities. Thanks to the society’s prosperity, as a consequence of scientific and technological research as well as technological progress, our lives have been improving on a daily basis, evolving towards “excellence”. A similar evolution has taken place in terms of leisure activities that have been known since antiquity. Some of them have slipped into oblivion, giving way to more interesting and controversial forms of leisure, including computer games. Computer games have become a part of our society; the role they have played in the 21st century is immense. Both children and teenagers are involved in this sort of pastime on a daily basis. To many of them, a day without their favourite game or virtual hero is hard to imagine. When asked about computer games, most adolescents will flood you with information on the subject. To children and teenagers, games are a source of lively colours, sounds and great opportunities. They offer a world beyond a child’s common experience. Games make a child feel needed. Most of all, computer games are more attractive and more easily accessible than other leisure activities.
EN
The aim of the paper is to discuss different options for qualification of computer games into appropriate category of copyright. The qualification is essential due to considerable differences between various protection regimes which emphasizes practical aspect of the issue. Difficulty in classification of computer games results from their specific structure which consists of software (computer programme) and audiovisual presentations. Some of the possible options include qualification of computer games as software or audiovisual work but other solutions are also taken into account such as: unnamed work, multimedia work or a completely new category of work. Due to the absence of Polish jurisdiction in this matter and insufficient research body it was necessary for the author to reach for foreign experiences and doctrine.
3
Content available remote A memory model for emotional decision-making agent in a game
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EN
Virtual characters are an important part of many modern computer games. This paper describes a graph-based memory system designed for artificial agents that also simulate simple emotions. The system was tested using virtual simulation environment and it showed many new and desirable AI behaviours. These behaviours include simple preferences, reactions based on bot’s opinion of a stimuli or improvement of bot’s ability to find objects to interact with.
EN
Purpose. The present study attempted to determine the effect of the number of hours spent playing computer games per week on somatic characteristics and the performance of selected coordination motor abilities. Methods. Ninety-seven prepubertal boys from rural areas of southern Poland were recruited. Selected coordination motor abilities were assessed by use of computer tests and a questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of time spent playing computer games. Basic somatic characteristics such as body height, body mass, body fat percentage (%PF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Descriptive statistics were calculated mean and standard deviation ( , sd) for the studied coordination abilities and somatic characteristics. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was employed to determine the differentiation between the results of the studied variables depending on the mean numbers of hours spent playing computer games per week. Results. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the results and the number of hours spent playing games, specifically for kinesthetic differentiation, spatial orientation, and the speed, accuracy, and precision of movements (in the number of committed errors). The lowest somatic characteristics including BMI was observed in the group of boys who spent the least amount of time playing computer games. Conclusions. It was found playing computer games 8 to 11 hours a week positively affected coordination motor ability, although individuals who played more than this amount of computer games had a higher incidence to be overweight or obese.
EN
In this paper the incidental language acquisition of 11-year-old Flemish children (n = 30) who have not received any formal English instruction is investigated. The study looks into children’s English proficiency and the learner characteristics that can be associated with it. In order to measure the children’s English proficiency, a receptive vocabulary test and a proficiency test (which measured listening skills, speaking skills, reading skills and writing skills) were used. Information about learner characteristics was gathered through two questionnaires (for children and parents). The results show that a significant proportion of the 11-year-olds can already perform tasks at the A2 level (The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) without having had any formal instruction. The study confirms that children learn English from the input they receive through different media (especially gaming and computer use). Furthermore, the data reveal a strikingly positive attitude towards English and demonstrate that in some situations Flemish children prefer using English over their L1 with their peers.
EN
This paper describes a method, for procedural content generation, allowing alteration of object during generation process, as well as further modifications of object after it was created. Most of existing algorithms either require adjustment of unintuitive data and parameters, or don’t allow for further alteration of created object. Such outcomes are unsatisfactory for most of game designers. We offer our solution for this problem and identify some possible future directions of our research.
EN
The aim of this paper is to gain an insight into some aspects of personal computer literacy and preschool and primary school teachers' education on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Another aim of the paper is to point out the inappropriate effects of computer use (personal as well as with children of school and preschool ages) according to the students of the Department of Preschool and Primary School Teaching of the Juraj Dobrila University in Pula. The x2 test was used in the data processing, along with the calculation of marginal frequencies for all the examined variables. The scientific and application value of this work is that, based on the indicators obtained, it suggests a need for permanent education of both preschool and primary school teachers on the applicability of ICT at all pedagogical and educational levels, and on all the positive but also negative aspects of ICT use in the widest sense.
EN
The present article entitled ”The role of computer games in present-day educational space” presents a view that this space should be understood as realized in two dimensions: the physical dimension of the traditional school and in the virtual dimension, partly formalized in school conditions and partly realized outside the space of the school, that is, in the more comfortable conditions of the globalized cyberspace represented by the computer net. Such a radical enlargement of formal educational space is both inevitable and irrecoverable. In this way, the traditional Platonic system of education is further strengthened, despite some negative traits of such a tendency. The positive aspects of the dynamic changes accomplished in present-day educational space are duly emphasized.
UK
Стаття «Роль комп’ютерних ігор в сучасному освітньому просторі» представляє погляд, згідно з яким ігровий простір сприймається як такий, що підлягає двом вимірам: виміру традиційної школи і виміру віртуальному. Віртуальний вимір як частина глобального кіберпростору набагато комфортніший. Наявність цього простору є неминучою. Таким чином, традиційна Платонівська система освіти є підкріплена багатьма позитивними особливостями віртуального простору.
EN
What is the relationship between computer games and cinema? Why computer games tend to employ camera movement, shot-selection and framing similar to that used in the cinema? To what extent, though, is it useful to look at games more closely in the light of cinema? These are the central organising questions of Joanna Pigulak’s 2022 monograph Gra w film. Z zagadnień relacji między filmem i grami wideo. The book focuses very much on film-like quality of graphics and genres of computer games and explores the extent to which the tools of film analysis can be applied to them. The book argues persuasively that likeness between cinema and games is the reason for calling games virtual reality, what makes the main framework somewhat debatable. Pigulak’s great strength is in analysing fragments of computer games and demonstrating how differences between cinema and games are allowing for defining new qualities of interactive texts even when fundamentally similar building blocks are involved.
EN
Computer games are an interactive form of entertainment that is popular with younger and younger players. Therefore researchers are actively seeking information on the consequences of pursuing this type of pastime. At the beginning, the researchers’ attention was focused mainly on the negative aspects of gaming. Nowadays, more and more benefits related to this activity are being indicated. In 2014, Granic, Lobel and Engels published an article on the benefits of playing computer games. The researchers focused on four areas: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. They wanted to inspire new research on mental health benefits of gaming by pointing to various research reports they selected. This paper aims to present the research directions explored in recent years by researchers who strive to describe the positive and negative consequences of gaming. I present the main directions and examples of research in these areas, highlighting the ambiguity of the current results. Problematic areas related to gaming include aggression and violence, addiction, weakening of social relations, experiencing undesirable emotions, sexualization, racial prejudice, and racial discrimination. The indicated opportunities and benefits are the strengthening of cognitive, motor, emotional, and social competences.
12
Content available Virtual enslavement in the world of network games
81%
EN
The article deals with the problem of enslavement in the virtual world with special emphasis on network games, which are currently the most popular among young users. It analysed three phases of player enslavement in a digital game environment, including: intoxication, addiction and withdrawal. The presentation and detailed description of each phase was intended to show the complexity of this phenomenon. Focusing on the extensive and important topic which is enslavement in the world of games gives the image of gaming as an entertainment extremely tempting with attractiveness, but also dangerous, leading to excessive involvement. Awareness of these threats allows for effective elimination and monitoring of areas that can pose a real danger to young users of digital space.
EN
As transmedia franchises increasingly populate our cultural environment, many questions arise about the effect of the different media involved in the depiction of storyworlds. Through the analysis of different examples, with special emphasis on the particular case of The Walking Dead, and drawing primarily from Henry Jenkins’s concept of “transmedia storytelling” and Jens Schroter’s concept of intermediality, this paper aims to show how different media aesthetics contribute to the process of storytelling and enrich the experience of the consumer. Usually overlooked in other analyses, we argue that these formal and aesthetical characteristics, such as the interactive nature of video games, call for a broader approach that transcends the accustomed search of common narrative aspects. This will be exemplified by a closer comparative look at the adventure game The Walking Dead: The Ganie (Telltale Games, 2012) and The Walking Dead: Survival Instiiict (Terminal Reality, 2013). The transformations that the different media demand contribute not only to the narrative, but also provide different tools for the construction of storyworlds and different ways to engage with it.
PL
The position deserves attention, as it opens a discussion on the important phenomenon of visual culture history, which is currently widely discussed among many researchers. A historian, even if he is not an art historian, often analyses iconographic art in his work. After all, we are dealing with a different type of perception of the described reality, one which accumulates the ability to synthetically capture it using at the same time both the historian’s and fi lm expert’s skills. Jacek Szymala sets himself an ambitious goal – to create a model, “a set of tools helpful in the future research of historians, especially modern historians, going beyond traditional historiography”. The author brilliantly shows that history is not only a collection of past facts and events but lives in its visual dimension, becoming a continuation of history itself. It is only important that, as far as possible, every viewer or reader can and should remain exactly as critical as in the process of interpretation of any historical source that “lies on the table” in the workshop of a good and reliable historian. The author is absolutely right when he writes that: “[...] these monuments, skulls, or paintings should serve as a warning and reflection, and not be the cause of mutual hatred, stereotyping, and prejudices”. Jacek Szymala’s book will definitely serve future researchers of this fascinating topic.
15
Content available remote Fun Retrospectives in Intel Technology Poland
70%
EN
One of the Agile principles is that the team should regularly reflect on"how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly". While the setup of a retrospective session is intuitive, in praxis, conducting successful retrospectives is challenging. This paper is a continuation of our previous work on the use collaborative games in addressing common retrospective problems. In addition to the replication of our previous action research in a new context, we aim to investigate whether preliminary anonymous idea generation mitigates negative social influences that have been identified as causes of poor performance of brainstorming. The obtained results confirms the previous findings that game-based retrospectives produces better results than the standard retrospective as well as improves participants' creativity, involvement, and communication. Our findings also suggest benefits to the preliminary anonymous idea generation.
EN
In our digital era, insider attacks are among the serious underresearched areas of the cybersecurity landscape. A significant type of insider attack is facilitated by employees without malicious intent. They are called unintentional perpetrators. We proposed mitigating these threats using a simulation-game platform to detect the potential attack vectors. This paper introduces and implements a scenario that demonstrates the usability of this approach in a case study. This work also helps to understand players' behavior when they are not told upfront that they will be a target of social engineering attacks. Furthermore, we provide relevant acquired observations for future research.
PL
Rynek gier to dynamicznie rozwijający się sektor branży rozrywkowej, jednak nieustannie traktowany po macoszemu przez polskie prawodawstwo. Gry komputerowe nie są zdefiniowane w ustawie dotyczącej prawa autorskiego, a ich złożoność: poczynając od skomplikowanej budowy, przez różnorodność gatunkową i stylistyczną, aż do podobieństwa do produkcji filmowych utrudnia jednoznaczne przyporządkowanie do istniejących w „Dzienniku Ustaw” kategorii. W artykule zostały przedstawione przykładowe konflikty dot. prawa autorskiego gier oraz zastosowane rozwiązania. Zaproponowano wprowadzenie nowej kategorii, a także przeprowadzono analizę, jakie gry do jakich kategorii można włączyć.
EN
The games market is dynamically growing sector of entertainment industry, however it is continually neglected by Polish legislation. Computer games are not defined in an act on copyright and their complexity: starting from sophisticated structure, through variety of genres and stylistics, to similarity to film productions makes it difficult to clearly assign them to categories already existing in The Journal of Laws. The article presents examples of conflicts on the copyright of computer games and applied solutions. The new category was proposed, as well as an analysis was made, of what games to which category can be included.
18
Content available remote Game AI Competitions: Motivation for the Imitation Game-Playing Competition
70%
EN
Games have played crucial role in advancing research in Artificial Intelligence and tracking its progress. In this article, a new proposal for game AI competition is presented. The goal is to create computer players which can learn and mimic the behavior of particular human players given access to their game records. We motivate usefulness of such an approach in various aspects, e.g., new ways of understanding what constitutes the human-like AI or how well it fits into the existing game production workflows. This competition may integrate many problems such as learning, representation, approximation and compression of AI, pattern recognition, knowledge extraction etc. This leads to multi-directional implications both on research and industry. In addition to the proposal, we include a short survey of the available game AI competitions.
PL
Gry komputerowe silnie oddziałują na kulturę i edukację młodych ludzi. Są zjawiskiem, które zawiera w sobie bardzo duży potencjał edukacyjny. Czy mogą stanowić narzędzie dydaktyczne w nauczaniu architektury -przedstawiony tekst jest głosem w takiej dyskusji.
EN
Computer games strongly influence the culture and education of young people. This phenomena contains a very large educational potential. Computer games can be a learning tool in teaching and promoting of architecture. Discussed examples illustrate how to use the values of cultural heritage in video games and beyond them (restoration of buildings of Venice as a form of casino Venetian in Las Vegas). Player through it's avatar gains new opportunities to explore the space described by the architecture. This allows to obtain a completely different perception of the surrounding virtual world.
EN
In computer games, dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) tries to ensure that the challenge level offered by the game matches the skill of the human player. In this paper simple and fast methods for adjusting a difficulty level of a computer opponent are presented. An empirical investigation of the methods when playing FPS (First Person Shooter) game is conducted. Performance of the methods is analyzed for different values of method's parameters, different game's scenes and players with various difficulty levels.
PL
Dynamiczne dostosowywanie poziomów w grach komputerowych polega na dopasowaniu trudności gry do umiejętności gracza. Bieżący artykuł przedstawia dwie metody, które pozwalają w prosty i szybki sposób dostroić komputerowego przeciwnika do poziomu gracza. Zachowanie metod jest analizowane w trakcie gry typu FPS dla różnych graczy, zróżnicowanych scen i różnych wartości parametrów metod.
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