Nowa wersja platformy, zawierająca wyłącznie zasoby pełnotekstowe, jest już dostępna.
Przejdź na https://bibliotekanauki.pl
Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Lata help
Autorzy help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 92

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 5 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  lexicology
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 5 next fast forward last
EN
The article includes the results of research into general dictionaries of Polish language recording historical lexical material and lexical abbreviations and acronyms. This research has been conducted in order to check whether a potential reader of Polish texts containing graphical abbreviations shall find dictionaries helpful in their explanation. Moreover, the way of presentation of abbreviations under the lexicographical entries which register those specific units of language has been outlined.
EN
This paper explores the lexicographic representation of a type of polysemy that arises when the meaning of one lexical item can either include or contrast with the meaning of another, as in the case of dog/bitch, shoe/boot, finger/thumb and animal/bird. A survey of how such pairs are represented in monolingual English dictionaries showed that dictionaries mostly represent as explicitly polysemous those lexical items whose broader and narrower readings are more distinctive and clearly separable in definitional terms. They commonly only represented the broader readings for terms that are in fact frequently used in the narrower reading, as shown by data from the British National Corpus.  
EN
The article deals with a part of German banking language from the point of view of lexicology; it describes the use of abbreviations. More and more English expressions are used in an original form, not translated into German. There are described the main application fields of the abbreviations, for example in the internal banking communication. There are summarized the main development trends in this language for special purposes. The frequent use of abbreviations can make the external communication with customers difficult. It is focused on abbreviations formed by the establishment of the EU or on the ones used in connection with Internet-Banking-Service too. This article highlights the problem of especially national expressions and the basic necessity of internationalisms, which infiltrate extensive into the banking language.
EN
The article covers the actualization of quasi antonymous relations in the lexical system of Russian national dialects. The phenomenon of quasi antonymy can be observed both in dialects and the colloquial speech. Taking into consideration the process of its functioning, we can say that quasi antonymy acts in the quasi antonymous oppositional form. When compared to the accurate (“true”) antonymous oppositions, quasi antonymous oppositional structure has a higher degree of semantic asymmetry and the part of speech heterogeneity, but less regular joint repeatability. In the article there are described some types of quasi antonymous oppositions in dialects, taking into account the character of linguistic units as well as the relations between their parts.
EN
Metaphors as a type of euphemism formation in thematic group of Russian Polish and English toilet euphemisms are considered. Different types of metaphorical euphemisms are investigated. The analysis demonstrates common devices in euphemism formation and common conceptual and linguistic aspects of euphemisation in Russian, Polish and English. Common devices and large number of interlingual euphemisms in the languages may justify the universal character of the cognitive basis of the nominative language area.
EN
The author states that progressive scholars have seen in the native language the source and the formation of children’s abilities, expand their knowledge of the objects of the world. They opposed scholasticism and dogmatism in the study of the Russian language, the suppression of the students living thought, emphasized the need for age-appropriate children, advocated the teaching relationship with life and insisted on the inclusion in the program on national language only the most important and necessary. The objectives and content of language teaching in the modern school, as well as principles of modern textbooks and manuals are rooted in the tradition of the Russian progressive techniques, whose founders were F. Buslaev, K. Ushinsky, I. Sreznevsky. The article discusses the basic principles of vocabulary learning (system, science, communication theory and practice, the principle of developmental education, unity of form and content) proposed by F. Buslaev, K. Ushinsky, I. Sreznevsky in papers on teaching the Russian language, their views on language teaching methods (conversation, semantic analysis of the text, followed by drawing up the plan, various types of vocabulary exercises aimed at understanding and activation in speech and writing lexical units), which are fundamental in modern methods of teaching the Russian vocabulary. The author stresses that F. Buslayev is an eminent linguist and literary critic, founder of the first Russian historical grammar, the author of the first work, which started the methods of teaching Russian – «On Teaching the national language». He recommended to work on lexical concept in the school course of the Russian language in the middle of the nineteenth century. He first proclaimed the principle of a comprehensive study of the language. It is noted that I. Sreznevsky identified such basic methodological principles as the principle of developmental education, the principle of age-appropriate, unity of form and content, system, and the relevance of particular consciousness, development of linguistic intuition, the selection of words for the accurate transmission of shades of meaning. K. Ushinsky believed that education can fulfill its task only under three conditions: 1) it is associated with life; 2) the training shall be constructed in accordance with the nature of the child; 3) teaching should be conducted in the native language of the students.
EN
The article gives an overview of the evolution of Estonian fish names, bringing to the fore the principles of naming fish from the point of view of both popular and scientific categorisation, and juxtaposing with the principles of classification of fish names by other peoples. The standard formal Estonian fish names started to be coined in the 1920s, when native-language terminology was created. Name-selection was often based on the example of other languages, especially German terminology. Estonian popular (dialect) names are based on local and popular categorisations, whereas the main emphasis is on the characteristic features of the fish.
EN
Jazep Drazdovich’s dictionary and Polish lexicographical tradition of the early 20th centuryThe article provides a comparative analysis of the theoretical and methodological Belorussian and Polish dictionaries of the early 20th century. We attempt to show the similarities between the assumptions of Polish and Belorussian lexicographers, identify the differences and demonstrate specific approaches taken by the lexicographers.We analyze how lexical features are described in Jazep Drazdovich’s dictionary, and compare it with Jan Karłowicz’s dictionary of Polish. The reason behind the creation of the dictionary of Belorussian in the early 20th century was the need to have a standard national lexicon and to provide a range of specialist scientific vocabulary. Compared with Jan Karłowicz’s dictionary, Drazdovich’s dictionary lacks functional remarks, as well as territorial restrictions of usage, derivational and etymological commentaries, and indicators of style (scientific, specialist, etc.).The exemplifications in Drazdovich’s dictionary were heteregeneous in comparison to Karłowicz’s dictionary – they were faithful either to the original source, or the pronunciation of the word.Drazdovich also included many features absent in other dictionaries: Latin names for plants and animals and illustrations for lexical entries. What is more, he introduced interjections and onomatopoeic words into the dictionary and sought to create scientific vocabulary, based on existing derivational instruments of Belorussian. Словарь Язэпа Дроздовича и польскоязычная лексикографическая традиция начала XX векаСтатья посвящена сопоставительному анализу теоретико-методологических основ составления полного словаря белорусского языка и польских словарей начала ХХ века. Сделана попытка показать сходство в принципах составления словарей белорусскими и польскими исследователями, установить различия, которые имели место между ними, продемонстрировать особые подходы, выбранные при создании словаря белорусского языка и воплощённые в польских лексикографических справочниках. В статье главным образом анализируются особенности подачи архивных словарных материалов, подготовленных Язэпом Дроздовичем, посредством сравнения их с реестровым составом “Словаря польского языка” Яна Карловича. Составление словаря белорусского языка было обусловлено практической необходимостью иметь национальный нормативный лексикон, сформировать корпус лексических средств научного стиля. В реестр задуманного словаря предполагалось включить слова без сопроводительных функциональных и других помет – без территориальных ограничений в употреблении, без словообразовательных и этимологических комментариев, без дифференциации и систематизации специальной лексики, – в отличие от словаря Яна Карловича. Иллюстративное обеспечение словарных статей белорусского словаря было неоднородным, в отличие от унифицированного правописного способа подачи примеров, принятого Я. Карловичем. Оно либо соответствовало характеру произношения, либо сохраняло принцип тождественности оригиналу источника. По сравнению с лексикографическим опытом коллег, Я. Дроздович для наименований по ботанике и зоологии использовал латинские аналоги, добавлял изображения ко многим бытовым и узкорегиoнальным словам, упорядочил и ввёл в состав лексических словарных средств междометия и звукоподражания, стремился создавать средства обозначения для научного стиля на основе существующих словообразовательных средств народного языка и типичных для него словообразовательных моделей.
PL
Color lexis constitutes a complex semantic network of meanings, which sometimes makes it difficult to determine the characteristic feature of a given color name. This article analyzes the semantic ambiguity of color lexis in the Polish and Russian languages. Color ambiguity, as shown by the analysis, is related to the specificity of the color pattern, the lack of stability of the color pattern or its multicolour quality.
11
100%
EN
Is wihajster a name for an artifact? A lexicological studyThe basic focal points of this article are the features of the word wihajster – both those inter- (grammar and semantics) and extralinguistic (etymology, orthography, pragmatics). Moreover, the article mentions other expressions characteristic of regional varieties of Polish which share some similar semantic features. The presented semantic interpretation implies that, generally, wihajster is a semantically marked synonym for narzędzie ‘tool,’ some of the examples, however, show that there are speakers who attribute to it an even broader scope of reference. The examples that illustrate the analysis have mostly been derived from fiction. Their analysis shows that referring to wihajster as a "post-war neologism" is not justified. The word undoubtedly appeared in Polish before World War II, and most probably even back in the 19th century. It is equally unreliable from the academic point of view to call wihajster a Germanism – unless we are prepared to abandon defining the latter as a loan word from German. All in all, the word does indeed imitate in sound the German phrase wie heisst er?, yet this linguistic unit did not evolve within German and thus is not an external loan. It can only be considered an internal loan from local dialects into general Polish. Czy wihajster jest nazwą artefaktu? Szkic leksykologicznyPodstawowym przedmiotem zainteresowania w artykule są cechy wewnątrz- (gramatyka i semantyka) i zewnątrzjęzykowe (etymologia, ortografia, pragmatyka) wyrażenia wihajster. Ponadto wspomniane są inne wyrażenia odmian (głównie regionalnych) języka polskiego, które mają podobne cechy semantyczne. Zapro­ponowana interpretacja semantyczna zakłada, że są to nacechowane synonimy narzędzia, choć część przykładów pokazuje, że użytkownicy języka przypisują im czasem jeszcze szerszy zakres odniesienia. Wykorzystywane do ilustracji toku wywodu przykłady pochodzą przede wszystkim z literatury pięknej. Ich ana­liza pokazuje, że częste w literaturze przedmiotu określanie wihajstra mianem „powojennego neologizmu” jest nieuprawnione – wyrażenie to pojawiło się w języku polskim na pewno przed II wojną światową, a prawdopodobnie jeszcze w XIX wieku. Równie nierzetelne naukowo jest nazywanie wihajstra germanizmem – chyba że germanizm zostanie zdefiniowany nie jako zapożyczenie z języka niemieckiego. Wihajster w istocie jest bowiem wyrażeniem naśladują­cym brzmienie niemieckiej frazy wie heisst er?, ale jednostka ta nie powstała na gruncie języka niemieckiego i nie jest zapożyczeniem zewnętrznym. Można ją traktować jedynie jako zapożyczenie wewnętrzne z gwar do języka ogólnego.
12
100%
PL
In the article there were analyzed etymologically and semantically 37 names of adjectives ‘crafty’ in the Old Polish lexicology. The material was gathered from all available lexicographical sources registering the vocabulary to the end of 19th century.It was evidenced that the formal structures investigated adjectives implied pictures such as: the picture of grasping at something, a picture of efficiency and excellence in particular field, the image of vector of change movement, the picture of phatamorgana, deception of something duplicitous, the figure of something hidden. Moreover the gross of analyzed units found its place in noun-derivation group of actions manifesting – cunningness or created in the ‘noun place’ with figurative sense. The implemented analysis depicted the differences between old Polish and the contemporary Polish language demonstrating itself on the par with lexicology and semantics.
13
Content available remote Wörter englischer Herkunft im deutschen Sportwortschatz
100%
EN
The aim of the paper is to draw attention to modern German lexis connected with sports, which includes a large number of Anglicisms. The subject of research are the borrowings from English to be found in sports lexis in the issues of the newspaper “Die Welt” in the years 1960 (1st-31st January) and 2005 (1st-6th September). The comparison of the lexis stemming from these two periods reveals a clear increase in Anglicisms content in the articles concerning sports in the German Press. The paper also contains a presentation of the research results obtained by other authors (LIPCZUK, SCHMITZ, SCHNEIDER, TAUTENHAHN, URBANEK, YANG, ZUCHEWICZ). Additionally an attempt was made to present the problem of alternative forms on the basis of several Anglicisms belonging to sports lexis.
14
Content available remote Diccionario de Catalina la Grande (1787-1789). Análisis del material español
88%
EN
This article presents the Spanish material from an unknown 19th century dictionary published in S. Petersburg by P.S. Pallas. After a brief biographical note, followed by the presentation of the lexicographic material, its analysis in terms of its transliteration, phonetics, morphology and lexical features is presented. As usual, it turns out that the study of any unknown material reveals new linguistic surprises and is an infallible way to increase the knowledge, even to a limited extent, of the history of any language. Keywords: historical lexicography, language history, phonetics, m
EN
The aim of this article is to show and to emphasize the importance of the so­-called info boxes for foreign language learners in a bilingual dictionary. The phenomenon has been demonstrated using the Hueber­-Dictionary (2008).
16
88%
EN
With the economic development of Romania by the end of the 19th century, new economic realities emerged that called for an appropriate terminological representation, which fact resulted in borrowing from Italian, the language of a country where the banking system was well-developed, and hence an ideal source thereof. Our presentation will include an analysis of the financial, economic and banking terminology adopted by the Romanian language, of the process of adapting these Italian terms to the peculiarities of the borrowing language, and a statistics of borrowings based on the most representative Romanian lexicographical works.
EN
The article deals with the reconstruction of the form and meaning of the Old Czech equivalent of the Latin term neomon preserved in Claret’s Glossarium in the form znaczie. Taking into account its word-forming structure and interpreting orthography of the written form, the form sňáčě – Claret’s abbreviation of the non-attested noun *sviňáčě – is discussed.
EN
The author of the article presents a method — applied in Lviv — of making university lexicology classes more attractive. Using examples of specific student tasks, the author shows how a fable written by the learners about a suggested lexicological subject can both consolidate their knowledge of a semantic theory and develop their communicative competence in Polish learned by them as a foreign language.
EN
This article outlines the original research concept developed and applied by the Voronezh researchers, which brought both quantitative and qualitative results to the field of linguistic comparative research. Their monograph is devoted to the macrotypological unity of the lexical semantics of the languages in Europe. In addition, semantic stratification of Russian and Polish lexis has been analyzed. Their research concept is now known as the “lexical-semantic macrotypological school of Voronezh.” Representatives of this school have created a new research field in theoretical linguistics – a lexical-semantic language macrotypology as a branch of linguistic typology. The monograph has been widely discussed and reviewed in Russia.
EN
Review: Iryda Grek-Pabisowa, Polskie wyspy gwarowe z przełomu XIX i XX wieku na Białorusi. Gwary późnego osadnictwa na Polesiu, Witebszczyźnie i Mohylewszczyźnie. Z wykazem słownictwa przedstawionym leksykograficznie (Polish dialect islands in Belarus at the turn of the 20th century: Dialects of late settlement in Polesie, and the Vitebsk and Mogilev regions. With a lexicographic listing of vocabulary), Warszawa: Instytut Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk.This article is a review of the work entitled Polskie wyspy gwarowe z przełomu XIX i XX wieku na Białorusi. Gwary późnego osadnictwa na Polesiu, Witebszczyźnie i Mohylewszczyźnie. Z wykazem słownictwa przedstawionym leksykograficznie (Polish dialect islands in Belarus at the turn of the 20th century: Dialects of late settlement in Polesie, and the Vitebsk and Mogilev regions. With a lexicographic listing of vocabulary), published in electronic version in Warsaw in 2017. The volume is a result of long studies by renowned Polish linguist Professor Iryda Grek-Pabisowa. In her publication, the author characterised late Polish settlement on the territory of contemporary Belarus, available language sources as well as features of the subdialects (including East Slavic influences and comparisons with North Borderland Polish, polszczyzna północnokresowa). The second part of the volume consists of three dictionaries presenting Polish speech in Polesie and the Vitebsk and Mogilev regions. Recenzja: Iryda Grek-Pabisowa, Polskie wyspy gwarowe z przełomu XIX i XX wieku na Białorusi. Gwary późnego osadnictwa na Polesiu, Witebszczyźnie i Mohylewszczyźnie. Z wykazem słownictwa przedstawionym leksykograficznie, Warszawa: Instytut Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk.Tekst stanowi recenzję pracy pt. Polskie wyspy gwarowe z przełomu XIX i XX wieku na Białorusi. Gwary późnego osadnictwa na Polesiu, Witebszczyźnie i Mohylewszczyźnie. Z wykazem słownictwa przedstawionym leksykograficznie, która ukazała się w wersji elektronicznej w Warszawie w 2017 roku. Jest ona efektem wieloletniej pracy znanej polskiej lingwistki – prof. dr hab. Irydy Grek-Pabisowej. W publikacji autorka scharakteryzowała późne osadnictwo polskie na ziemiach współczesnej Białorusi, dostępne źródła językowe, a także cechy tychże gwar (z uwzględnieniem wpływów wschodniosłowiańskich i porównaniem z polszczyzną północnokresową). Drugą część publikacji stanowią trzy słowniki prezentujące mowę Polaków na Polesiu, Witebszczyźnie i Mohylewszczyźnie.
first rewind previous Strona / 5 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.