In the article the author would like to draw the reader's attention to some of the most interesting ideas in the philosophy of Jan Patocka. This 20th-century Czech philosopher developed a very original philosophy. His main interest was focused on the human condition, so complicated and full of paradoxes, as became clear especially in the 20th century, which included two world wars and two totalitarianisms. Moreover, in the later stage of his philosophical development, Patocka concentrated on the historical condition of human life. He tried to describe the origin of history, which is also the origin of philosophy, politics, and freedom. The result is that by entering into history, human beings enter into a permanent state of problematicity.