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EN
The article presents modernism in film, where modernism is defined as a trend in art cinema in 1950-1970s, where self-reflection, formal aspect of the work, subjectivism, distancing and deconstruction of classic models of drama and narrative are the defining characteristics of the style. The article summarizes the most important definitions of modernism in arts, highlighting the theoretical aspects that were later developed in film studies. The author also defines the temporal frames of the style, and identifies the key films that adopted this style. Chronology and aspects of worldviews and the aesthetics also needed to be systematized in order to deepen the understanding of this aesthetic trend in film. The author concludes by arguing that neo-modernism is the contemporary form of the modernist cinema of the past decades.
EN
The paper is focused on contact points of different paradigms in the works of Samuel Beckett (1906-989). Using the example of his early experimental prose (Murphy, 1938; Watt, 1944), the paper explores Beckett's problematic position in the context of the modernist project and the transition to postmodernism: the overlapping/fading of modernist optimism (the effort to erase the gap between the language and the objects denominates) and the rise of postmodern scepticism (the fundamental inadequacy of the language.
EN
Leonids Arins was one of the leading followers of Fauvism in Latvian art. Already during his studies at the Decorative Painting Master Studio of the Latvian Academy of Art (1925-1942) he was interested in Latvian early modernists' and the latest European achievements in art, purchasing the best publications available at the time - expensive books on art published in the West. Arins spent most of his life in the provincial town of Tukums, working at the local museum (1938-1953) and teaching drawing at the local secondary school (1953-1968). He took up painting enthusiastically after retirement. Arins' painting is typified by attempts to achieve colour harmony on a flat surface, characteristic of the Fauves and especially of Henri Matisse; at the same time he searched for an individual style as well. From a thematic viewpoint, this shows in the choice of local environment and landscape but from the aspect of form and style - in the blending of bright colour fields and variations on the Northern light. Expression, asymmetry and the broken rhythm give Arins' compositions a particular experimental tension.
EN
Similarly as many Slovak prose writers of the previous generation, in his collection of novellas 'Vykriky bez ozveny' (Cries without Echo) (1928), Milo Urban drew inspiration from rural environment. But Urban also introduced a modern universal topic in his novellas. It is certain distress, narrow-mindedness of village life. The main characters of Urban's stories, the village outsiders, experience it most intensively. They are lonely people who estranged their surroundings. The distress, melancholy that they feel indicates how reserved, shut off village can be. The author of the study interpretes two early novellas by Milo Urban - 'Jasek Kutliak spod Bucinky' (1922) and 'Rozprávka o Labudovi' (The Fairy-tale on Labuda). Due to the way of narration and ambiguity they present modern proses. The features of a fairy-tale, a ballad and a myth indicate a more complicated structure of narration. The novella 'Jasek Kutliak spod Bucinky' is about disintegration of a love relationship - after her wedding with the hunter Jasek, the young girl Hanka changes completely. The narration oscillates between the depiction of Hanka's wichedness and a story of/with modern topic of desillusion from lost love. In 'Rozprávka o Labudovi' (The Fairy-tale on Labuda) there are two possible ways of how to read the text. The first one is a story about a foolish peasant, the second is a more universal story about Labuda that becomes an allegory of human fate. The explanation of the novella becomes more complicated when its figurative language, metaphors as well as the topic of isolation are taken into account.
EN
The first chapter of the paper provides a selective overview of the modern concepts of melancholy (e.g. S. Freud, J. Kristeva, S. Žižek, L. Földényi) as well as some of its literary forms (e.g. Chateaubriand, Amiel, Baudelaire etc.). The concepts contain a certain invariant of an existential melancholy mood, which is the state of a subject being attached (often unconsciously) to a certain historical idea of death seen as the ultimate end of an individual, nothingness. This attachment leads to the loss of meaning. For a melancholic person, the „benefit“ from a finite ephemeral life as, for example, once formulated by V. Jankelevitch, is just unacceptable. On the contrary, the ultimate end deletes the lived life in reverse order: if an individual autobiographic memory of this life ceases to exist, this life is deleted as if it had never existed – and the end deletes it as a life being lived rather than one already been lived, past, finalized. Therefore life cannot be lived at present any more. And because life has an inevitably ultimate end, it becomes unbearable, always already lost for a melancholic person. The next two chapters analyse the modalities of Modernist melancholy in two pieces of writing by Slovak Modernist authors.
EN
Misogyny has existed within Western literature since always, but one can observe its particular intensification at the turn of the 19-th century. The Teutonic philosophical tradition has created a very special sort of imaginary misogyny. Intellectual circles of Vienna come to the fore in this context. This tendency accompanies the great crisis of Western masculinity that according to many scholars was increasing in that time. According to Jacques Le Rider the crisis of masculinity and misogyny were felt in fin de siecle Vienna in a very strong way. The main goal of the study is to examine the attitude towards women of the most important Czech modernist poets against the Vienna background. The study tries to answer the question if poetry of Czech modernism was from the point of view of misogyny only another copy of Vienna pattern.
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Content available remote Matisse’s La Danse: On the Semantics of the Surface in Modern Painting
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EN
Since in Modernism inner meaning is doubted or believed lost, the question arises of what an interpretation ignoring the established dialectics of outside and inside and limiting itself to an exclusive surface would look like. Henri Matisse's decorations raise questions about the differences between figure and background, appearance and essence, inside and outside. Instead of reference to depth under the surface, it is density and expansion, concentration and contraction, which determine the occurrence of meaning on the surface. Matisse presents himself as a flaneur of the surface, as if he wanted to show us, in the words of Gilles Deleuze, that '(i)t is by following the border, by skirting the surface, that one passes from bodies to the corporeal'.
EN
The article deals with relations between modernism and postmodernism in large cultural and historical framework. Postmodernism here is not understand as continuation or as negation of modernism, but as a 'jin jang' energy, fertilizes each other, rises and fades out together. Author does not work with notions postmodernism and modernism as with cultural-sociable phenomenon typical for Euro-American society, but as an opposition of understanding of those phenomenon in strictly territorial determination. It is not territorial phenomenon but historical phenomenon determined by interactions between East and West. Author uses to describe postmodern situation in European literatures with term 'change of the rules of the game' as deviation of European literature from genre-typological agreements. Today this change manifests in certain syncretism and fictional autobiography of the huge amount of the European literatures, influenced by Eastern poetic and semantic structures, and also by the Nonwestern philosophical tradition.
EN
This article aims to elucidate the evolution of Socialist Realism, the central art-theoretical term of the period 1945-1980, as it appears in the weekly periodical 'Literatura un Maksla' ('Literature and Art', 1945-1990). The doctrine of Socialist Realism was proclaimed as the only permitted one during the All-Soviet Union Writers' Congress in 1934 and inculcated in the newly occupied territories, including Latvia, after 1945. It can be partly interpreted as a continuation of the old European traditions in art theory. 19th-century Realism was one of the central building-blocks of this doctrine but one should note also the very idea of art as a theoretically grounded activity that has to represent reality. As the ancient theory of art as representation did never mean precise copying but a kind of idealisation that became heavily dependant on classical models studied in European art academies, the doctrine of Socialist Realism inherited this basic idea of academic theory that art can be taught and artists' professional skill is essential. The most paradoxical conclusion to be drawn from this study - critics had no other criteria, except their intuition and feeling, to decide whether an artwork is 'right' or 'wrong' from the viewpoint of Socialist Realism. Nobody, of course, has been able to explain, when and how exactly an innovative feature that might enrich Socialist Realism turns into contestable deviation from its supposedly 'objective', 'professional', 'ideologically true' course. It is possible to assume that the ongoing extension of the notion of Socialist Realism was a simple reaction to the evolution of artistic practice. At the same time, it is not provable that situation in art forced to expand the notion's boundaries against the authors' true conviction. The term of Socialist Realism can be surely metaphorically compared to an empty shell whose ever-changing content deserves to be studied in the wider context of Western art-theoretical thought.
EN
The turn between the 19th and the 20th centuries becomes a crucial point of the Slovak literature of the 20th century. It is a meeting point and a point of confrontation of two generations and two different poetics. This confrontation has been reflected in the literary historiography as a polemic between Parnassism and Realism with Modernism - just coming into the world. The comparison of Hviezdoslav's and Krasko's lyricism as it shows a comparison of a Hviezdoslav's poem 'Postrán cesty topole' (Poplars Along the Road) and a Krasko's poem 'Topole' (Poplars), depicts that both poets were connected with each other through several common factors: common contemporary feeling of melancholy, situation of 'two souls', individualistic and collectivistic ones; the feeling of human fate, many times described by a symbolic picture of a Sphinx, or frustration from a prevailed pragmatism. It is also clearly evident that foundational difference among these poetics could not be overcome. Hviezdoslav's poetic in a moment came to touch, convergence with a poetic of Modernism and what more there was a momentarily penetration, but soon after it declined and mutual polemics and misunderstanding accompanied their divergence. Finally Hviezdoslav kept his position of being a poet of the end of previous epoch.
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2015
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tom 48
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nr 1
3 – 21
EN
The main thesis of the article is that there are good reasons for seeing the pre-modernist architectural and design idioms as still valid and feasible visual inventions, in contrast to the modernist view that has considered them as stone-dead expressions of past historical periods. The thesis is backed up by philosophical arguments developed by the late British philosopher Karl Popper. The present author concludes that there are no reasonable arguments for why the present schools of architecture and design should keep limiting the education of future architects and designers to the modernist visual idiom alone, as they have been doing since the 1950s.
EN
The short story 'Nas Jezisko' (Our Baby Jesus) belongs to the Tajovsky's thematic cycle focused on ethnology and collecting of folk artefacts. The short story 'Nas Jezisko' (1918) was written by Tajovsky as a legionary at the end of WWI . It is a lyrical reminiscence, accompanying us through times and periods, when a narrator as a child experiences amazing impressions from the Christmas Holy Mass, he thinks back on an odour of frankincense, songs of shepherds, joy of all who participate in the birth of Jesus. After many years new ceremonial orders come to the church, people do not understand a (Hungarian) language, even the baby Jesus is different, having boots on. Author connects a magic of folk ceremonies with a Slovak word, which represents semantics of representative sign. Through a myth about nativity of Christ Tajovsky illustrates how much destructively Hungarisation damaged our national substance.
EN
There are two concepts of public art; the old one and the new one. The first one can go back to the 1960s. Old public art had modern and formalist character, in fact it meant art in public places. The new public art is postmodern and anti-formalist, it is paradoxical offshoot of dematerialization of art and relates rather to the public sphere than to public places. It aims at permanent extension of the field of discursivity and undermining the 'communist fiction' that society has one common goal which could be uncovered by scientific research. New public art defends the public sphere in which those, who are ruled should have the same right to speak as those who rule; it defends politics against various forms of depoliticization of social life. New public art moves the interest of artists (Joseph Beuys, Hans Haacke, Christo, Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger and others) from aesthetics to politics, from art to life, or to put it in other words - from artlike art to lifelike art. postmodernizm
14
Content available remote METAPHOR IN THE POETRY OF IMAGISTS
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EN
The article discusses the role of metaphor in the new poetic response to reality which emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century, especially in the work of some Anglo-American poets and critics, known as Imagists. The new trends, which the poets were part of as well as helped define, drew on the philosophy of T. E. Hulme who claimed that the future poetry will consist of dry and sophisticated images, which is in striking contrast to rich romantic imagery. The interpretive part of the article draws attention to imagistic anthologies in which the poets expressed the new sensibility through several visually striking poems, most of them forgotten by now, as well as to the handling of metaphor in some poems by Ezra Pound and Wallace Stevens.
EN
he aim of the study is to clarify a phenomenon of a modernistic virtuality and some of its expressions in the 20th century arts of 20-ties and 30-ties. The European and Slovak prose in that time reflected the intuitivistic concepts of so called antirational thinking. Mainly Bergson's conception of creative development with its virtual dimensions was an inspirational impact. Moreover today, it offers a base for the post-modern thinking in the history of literature, which intention is not to ignore historical entry of virtual reality in all kinds of the spheres of human activity. This methodological base was applied into the short story written by Ivan Horváth 'Zlocin nezivých veci' (The Crime of Non Living Things, 1932). The analysis showed that he included Bergson's virtuality into the plot of the short story. Due to it, it was possible to analyse a discursive construction of Horváth's text, superior to epistemological course of the story. Discursive style and its connection with the motives of truth and a woman pre-marked poststructuralist, a Derrida like thinking, about the same problems. Research in the history of literature regarding a discursive composition of the texts, as well as the character of artistic virtuality and virtual reality, innovate thinking about values of the epoch of Modernism. The cognitive element of such an approach offers new criteria for understanding of so called realism as a specific co-part of modernistic writing.
EN
The ambiguousness of the genre structure of Bunin's Nobel Prize novel 'The Life of Arsenyev' (1927-1933) is determined by the complexity of its intratextual composition which developed against the background of Russian and West-European modernism as a variant of self-reconstruction and self-representation of the autobiographical subject. Up till now it has remained an open and discussed phenomenon in literary science evoking the creativity of methodological approaches and textual interpretations, which enable the work to be designated as a lyrical-autobiographical confession, phenomenological novel, autobiographical metatext, modern existential autobiography, auto-fiction, auto-reflection, self-identification, as well as 'poema' in prose, fictional autobiography, auto-reminiscence and memoir-novel. The problem of the genre identification of Bunin's text, which is perceived at the boundary between a traditional autobiography and a modern novel, is determined by the central lines of the author's conception of the work. Their basic feature is the ambivalence of the internal text organisation in the sense of: 1.- past – present, 2.- domestic - foreign, 3.- lyrical – epic, 4. - classical - modern, 5.- reality (documentarity) - fiction, which can be analysed in the discourse of the Russian emigrant literature of the first half of the 20th century, when the genre of the artistic autobiography reached a dominant status.
EN
The study interprets the novel by Peter Kompiš Bludná púť velikého čarodeja (Wanderings of a Great Wizard, 1929) in terms of the way the literary subject is constituted in the text and in respect of the literary representation of madness. Within the context of the Slovak inter-war prose the author classifies the novel as the theme invariant of a character breaking out of the social relationships and the inter-subjective world. On the topological text level, the motif of madness causes the discontinuity of chronotopes, on the motif level, flying motifs (supposedly „astral travels“ of a soul set free of the body). The semantic curve of the subject transformation in the text leads from the absolute „divine“ subject, voluntarily ruling the reality (when the character´s madness bridges the gap between self and not-self) to a subordinate, dependant subject (the character eventually becomes a slave to a mad „theatrical“ performance). This subject transformation in the text is considered to be a modernist (Modern-dependant) subject and it is also found in the writings by the modernist Ján Hrušovský. The supposedly original philosophy of the literary character Rojko (Dreamer) is an inter-textual patchwork of the motifs present in the contemporary philosophies (e.g. the „super-human“ concept) as well as Gnosticism and is generated, like the motifs of hallucination, by the character´s megalomaniac figment of imagination. The representation of madness in the text is enabled by Modern-Age subject constitution, which is opposed to the world and is presented as the basis and the source of the reality representation: thus the gap between self and not-self is bridged even further.
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Content available remote ÚVOD DO PREMIEN SLOVENSKEJ SCÉNOGRAFIE
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EN
The paper is introduction to the metamorphosis of the Slovak stage design from the 1970s up to present. The author focuses on the expansion of conventional theatre space in the Slovak context (auditorium/stage) by new acting locations (street, square, railway station, i.e. site-specific locations) and other changes related to modernism, post-modernism and trans-culturalism in the arts/ the theatre. Today, stage design reflects the feelings and a flurry of emotions of an individual and of the society. It makes use of the state-of-the-art technology not only to finish off a message but also to disintegrate an idea, a plot and to act as a counterpoint to the word or the theme. On the one hand, it is dynamic and polyfunctional, on the other hand, it is static and semiotic. New theatre forms reflect the time we live. The story has disappeared from the theatre and it has been replaced by the images, emotions of an actor/performer, thus representing his/their (self) knowledge. Oftentimes, the stage designer is within the performer who lives the time together with “his/her” audience.
EN
The contents of the article are regarded as an effort to answer the question outlined in the title about the importance of the somatic sphere in the drama of the Ukrainian modernism epoch writer — Oleksandr Oles (real name: Oleksandr Kandyba 1878–1944). In the Way to the fairy-tale (1908) the author avoids direct information on carnality. Following the prevailing epoch trend, the writer gives up the traditional ethnographic and realistic model of artistic creation. His reflexion about the soma-sphere is expressed by an ambiguous myth and symbol. The symbolism is one of the basic trends at the beginning of the 20th century and makes up an essential mean for Oles’ dramatic expression, the author is therefore more interested in the presentation of state of mind than in sensual body. The body appears to be important insofar as it is a soul’s expression and sign. Like the symbol, the body remains in the sensation and imagination sphere.
EN
Josef Čapek’s writings from between 1914 and 1920 present a distinctive conception of primitivism, which was, beginning in the early twentieth century, of fundamental importance for the development of modern trends in the fine arts, in connection with the essential change in understanding the term ‘art’. Two manuscript version of the essay Umění přírodních národů (The art of primitive peoples) from 1914 to 1916 and the article ‘Sochařství černochů’ (Negro sculpture) from 1918 are amongst the first European critical attempts to interpret ethnic art. Čapek presents the ‘art of the savages’ (divošské umění) as fully fledged art, and he tries to analyse its principles of expression. He compares them to current trends in art. The essays from the volume Nejskromnější umění (The humblest art, 1919–20), which consider other dimensions of primitivism, present a particular definition and expansion of the term ‘art’. In contrast to academic virtuosity, Čapek here emphasizes values of hitherto peripheral and unacknowledged areas of artistic expression, and achieves a distinctively personal revision of the traditional conception of the boundaries of the work of art and therefore also its essence and purpose. The essay ‘Sociální užitečnost umění’ (The social utility of art, 1919) also relates to these questions.
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