Nowa wersja platformy, zawierająca wyłącznie zasoby pełnotekstowe, jest już dostępna.
Przejdź na https://bibliotekanauki.pl
Ograniczanie wyników
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 41

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 3 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  CONSTRUCTIVISM
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 3 next fast forward last
EN
The author of the article introduces Hayden White’s, Frank Ankersmit’s, and Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen’s constructivist understanding of history. He contrasts their understandings of history with the traditional understanding, which supposes direct correspondence of historical work to the past. In his presentations of constructivist thought, he points out their emphasis on legitimate possibilities of different methods of construction and ways of presentations, which result in different historical representations of historical events. Differences among historical representations of the past can also be related to the historian’s choice of different constructive methods and also the involvement of his/her preferred moral and political values. These constructivist understandings of history, with the deeper analysis of process writing, incite the historian to deeper ethical self-awareness of his/her work.
EN
The present text discuses selected theses of Bruno Latour's book 'Reassembling the Social. An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory', intended as a systematic introduction to the Actor-Network Theory (ANT). ANT is an extremely philosophically innovative concept, rooted in a tradition, more than thirty years old now, of so-called social studies on science which can be defined as a current within non-classical sociology of knowledge. ANT is presented as an alternative social metatheory, or, a specific methodology. The authoress rejects a hyposthasis of (the) Society, which has been preventing social sciences from an adequate recognition of several mechanisms, particularly those characteristic to a global risk society. The essay highlights that ANT is not yet another version of a social constructivism. For the co-author of this position, it is important that it be empirical as well, and that social sciences appreciate the role of objects, things, referred to as 'our younger brothers'.
EN
The article presents theory of spontaneous order well-developed and promoted by Friedrich August von Hayek. According to him, the majority of human social institutions, such as 'inter alia' law, language and money was not created as a result of deliberate plan, but evolved spontaneously. For Hayek all conscious and planned attempts to reduce spontaneous social phenomena show the pride of human mind and therefore lead only to disrupt the proper functioning of the community. In fact, the more complex social order, the lower the possibility of conscious control and purposeful organization. Conscious control of social processes leads inevitably to the collapse of law understood as 'the rule of law' and leads us straight to the law understood as an instrument of control over society
EN
The author deals with the problem of an interest in photography and film, shown by Polish avantgarde artists from its beginnings. According to him, photomontage, film, prints made of typographic elements, and first of all film collage were the means that were perfectly suitable for the realisation of Constructivist ideas. One of the basic aims of Constructivism - to turn towards new materials - could be put in practice through the use of finished and prefabricated elements. He traces the way in which the artworks were evolving from the 'literary quality' of the early photomontages of Mieczyslaw Szczuka, Teresa Zarnower's abstract and geometric compositions, Stefan Themerson's films, inspired by 'Constructivism Pharmacy' (1930) and 'Europa' (1932) and Jalu Kurek's ('Rhytmic Calculations', 1932) into typically collage-montage films of Janusz Maria Brzeski ('Sections', 1931; 'Concrete', 1933) or his anti-Utopian and anti-industrial series of photomontages 'The Robot is Born' (1934). The author also points out that after a period of Utopian projects by artists relishing a regained freedom, the Constructivists expressed through art their, mostly left-wing, political beliefs.
EN
The paper focuses on the issue of the entanglement of the constructivist literary scholarship in constructivist, cognitive and the system-theoretical discourse. The transdisciplinarity has proved to be very productive in a whole range of the attempts to renovate the literary science. The theorem of the constructiveness of the observation and of the knowledge gave a new direction to the literary science. It is even referred to as a change of paradigm, or a transition from a pre-paradigmatic to a paradigmatic science. In the radical constructivist discourse, which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, the concepts of empiricity, cognition and communication has been redefined. Nevertheless, the meta-theoretical, trans- or interdisciplinary, epistemic, philosophical and methodological foundations of the constructivist literary scholarship are confronted with the problem of the practicability of such claims and the question of their reconciliation.
EN
This essay concerns a certain aspect of the ethics of textual interpretation, or rather, to be specific, a relation being key to this ethics, namely, the interpreter's ethics vs. the author's intent relation. Having espoused a 'post-Wittgensteinian', textual-situational, or, institutional-relational situation of intent(ion), the authoress has considered the ethical assumptions and implications of selected pro-intentionist and anti-intentionist approaches (with a particular focus on culturalist interpretationism represented by S. Fish). The context for these considerations is the motif of inventiveness - as a broadly understood, yet always constructivism-confounded, concept. Their starting point is an apprehension of creativity (incl. work, its author, and, primarily, the reader), being referred to the Derrida concept, whereby creativity is approached as a value with a clear ethical characteristic and a demanded counterbalance to limitations (super)imposed on a reading by the author's intention. The arguing under discussion aims at making an afterthought on the benefits ensuing from restraining creativity in favour of intention.
EN
The paper is a continuation of the authoress' preceeding article 'Constructivism as a Philosophy and a Sociology of Science' (Filozofia, 63, 2008, No.1). It sheds light on Goodman's irrealism as well as on the place of the constructions in producing the plurality of worlds. It gives the definition of the strong constructivism, which rejects the idea of representation, while one-sidedly stressing the external social determinants of knowledge (K. Knorr-Cetina, the social epistemology of S. Fuller etc.). In particular, some properties of the constructs are shown as related to the information and its processing. In conclusion some weak versions of constructivism as the expressions of an exaggerated reflexivity are questioned.
EN
Three claims are presented and argued for: (1) that universal laws are impossible within constructivistic (humanistic) approaches since the very nature of humanistic explanations (intentional, teleological) precludes possibilities of objective comparisons between investigated targets, (2) that it is unproductive to look for universal attributes of study objects (e.g., attributes common to all people and cultures) since differences seem to be the rule rather than exception in the social sciences, (3) that it is possible to speak of universal mechanisms if one assumes that the formulated laws have an interactive nature and that one of the factors (the independent variable) is a theoretically meaningful dimension that differentiates the compared people or cultures.
EN
Researchers often make an opposition between nomothetic and idiographic (constructivist) approaches in psychology. Such a dichotomous distinction takes for granted that the main aim of scientific psychology is to generate universal theories, culturally and historically unchangeable. Such a distinction (a) silently assumes objectivity of scientific knowledge and (b) refuses psychology the right of autonomy, by perceiving it as inferior to natural sciences. The present paper proposes an alternative understanding of psychology as a set of middle-range theories. The range of these theories is determined by the results of meta-analytic findings and structural relations between the theories. Thus practical utility becomes a key dimension to evaluate a given theory. The consequences of such an approach are discussed within the context of social psychology and psychohistory.
EN
The article deals with some general problems involved in the current identity debate and addresses a number of questions which seem to be basic for the issue of national identity: (1) what we really mean when we attribute identity a nation?; (2) is it possible to speak about collective identity without falling into holistic fallacy?; (3) what is the meaning of constructivism v. essentialism controversy?; (4) is it possible today to consider national identity as a so-called master identity?
EN
The article presents different views of understanding the meanings of historical facts and the nature of historical narratives. It also points to the problems related to understanding the historical work and historical narratives in selected works of the representatives of naive realism, constructivism and critical realism. It is assumed that Eugen Zelenak's presentation of the basic ideas of critical realism (which stresses the importance of applying various conceptual frameworks) could have constructivist consequences.
EN
The history of humanities is abundant with numerous turns (anti-Positivist, linguistic, interpretative ones), each of which set for itself the task of showing that humanities differ from natural sciences, being a project that refers to a separate sphere of reality, driven by a method of its own. The same happens with an ethical turn which we are witnessing today. This turn, commenced by the reader-response criticism and neopragmatism, has made us aware that we are judging beings, axiologically interested, and that a purely contemplative attitude toward the world is not part of our equipment. This means that we are switching into a science perceived as a cognitive activity which is ethically, or even politically, involved and which primarily aims at fulfilling our ideals of a 'decent life' and 'decent society'
EN
The author of the article introduces Hayden White’s, Frank Ankersmit’s, and Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen’s constructive understanding of history. He contrasts their understandings of history with the traditional understanding, which supposes direct correspondence of historical work to the past. In his presentations of constructive thought, he points out their emphasis on legitimate possibilities of different methods of construction and ways of presentation, which result in different historical representations of historical events. Differences among historical representations of the past can also be related to the historian’s choice of different constructive methods and also the involvement of his/her preferred moral and political values. These constructive understandings of history, with the deeper analysis of process writing, incite the historian to deeper ethical self-awareness of his/her work.
EN
Polish education system that covers teaching History does not provide efficient training for young people' living in informational society and knowledge-based economics of the 21st century. Skills important for further education and many modern occupations are weak points of many Polish graduates. Teaching History in a way adequate to present needs (that is, establishing necessary skills and competencies) should focus not as much on choosing problems with which pupils have to acknowledge, as on guaranteeing possibility for acting, that would result in increase of knowledge and skills. Learning of History in a present form is condemned for a slow marginalization because of its uselessness for pupils in their everyday life. Author states, that among various contemporary theories in pedagogy, two - constructivism and connectivism - seem to face challenges of present times and give the pupils chance to gain all above mentioned skills. Nevertheless, the problem is that noticeable failures of traditional teaching of History do not convince Polish Ministry of National Education to focus on new theories and implement them to a teaching plan, which should be done. In the article can be found propositions of subjects, that can be taught according to above mentioned theories.
15
Content available remote WIRKLICHKEITSKONSTRUKTION DURCH METAPHERN BEI INGEBORG BACHMANN
100%
EN
In the self-description (in letters or in dream notes, and in the novel Malina and two novel fragments from the project “Todesarten”) it is observed how those elements of reality that literally embody or specifically indicate a problem are metaphorically conceptualized – in this case, the traumatic experience from relationships (Bachmann explicitly speaks of insults) and Bachmann’s resulting psychic injury. Accordingly, the development of metaphors in the self-descriptions or self-portrayals of the author and her female protagonists is also examined. The development of the metaphors in the projection and introspection of letters and dream notes and in the selected texts of the project “Todesarten” indicates a system of states of one’s own that have an effect on the cognitive system, or to which the author is repeatedly thrown back (according to Georg Groddeck). In this sense, a self-therapeutic effect cannot be denied. Subsequently, a metaphorical structure should be recognizable, which lay in the shape of a network over the texts to be examined.
16
100%
EN
The article provides author's conclusions on the impact of constructivism, which has been widely recognized as an approach to e-learning, on education. The author enumerates the benefits constructivism offers for education yet mostly underlines its negative implications. It is argued that the problem with constructivism is that it causes devaluation of the role of the teacher, and consequently, the loss of the aim of teaching, the appearance of the phenomenon of 'false consensous' and the students' excessive sense of relativism of knowledge.
EN
Ever since its first formulation in the 1970s the so called chaos theory has held great appeal for the humanities, philosophy and social sciences. Until the late 1990s many literary studies papers inspired by chaos theory included the observation that only time could tell whether the terminological transfer from physics and mathematics could provide the enrichment for the discipline and about the additional insight into literature gained by the adaptation of the scientific concepts. By now one can state that 'chaos-theoretical' literary studies have produced some insights into literature and many into the field of the literary studies. The adaptation of chaos theory by the literary studies can be seen as a gauge of self-reflection and -observation of the discipline. In presenting some similarities as well as differences between chaos theoretically influenced literary studies and the literary studies under the paradigm of constructivism, the author would like to demonstrate the mechanisms of cultural self-reflection and -assurance by means of the literary studies.
EN
Constructivism is an anti-positivistic position pursued in many branches of social sciences and the humanities. In philosophy of science this position is identified by the tenet of the object of research. Regardless whether it be a social world or the posterity, or the physical world, it is not external reality independent of the cognising subject, but a product of the process of construction or constituting. Some authors equate constructivism with postmodernism. Other authors profess more moderate relativistic views and point out that there are credible considerations that are used to constrain the process of constituting or construction
EN
Distinguishing the agent and recipient perspectives in human perception allows for reflection in the three domains of scientific research. In cognitive psychology, this distinction is well interpreted in the constructive approach enriched with the motivational factors. In the psychology of management, it shows consequences resulting from the relationship between manager and subordinate. Finally, in the philosophy of science, it provokes considerations of the importance of forms and substance in determining scientific laws.
EN
The study is composed as some remarks on the project of implication of radical constructivism in the literary scholarship. Immanuel Kant, Wilhelm Dilthey, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Jean Piaget, fathers of constructivism, have always been present in the literary thinking. However, they have always been present also in psychiatry, physics, mathematics and biology. Thus, this is a brief outline of constructivism as a cognitive theory and epistemological basis of constructivist literary, whose essential thesis claims all the utterances involving reality are utterances about experience. Empirical knowledge is operational, resulting from the experience with orientation activities. Experience is the framework of knowledge, i. e. experience is based on forming operational strategies of one's own cognitive system. The empirical knowledge is the one we share with other people. Empirical theories such as radical constructivism explain the formation of knowledge as a correlative structure based on experience with a certain phenomenon. This means we are not able to observe the characteristics of the objects, but only abilities and possibilities of cognitive systems. In constructivist literary scholarship, text is viewed as a symptom of parallel constructing of the orientation space, which clearly shows the abnormality of searching for intentions in the text. This results in different legitimization of the scholarship, its main focus being put on optimalization of communicative experience. This is connected with the shift form the ontological tasks to operational tasks. The point of critique in the constructivist literary scholarship was also interpretation practice, whose main focus was to interpret, to explain the text. The constructivist literary scholarship defines the text as a cognitive and social mechanism of selection of desired modes of thinking and actions, as a means of control. The radical asset of this conception lies in the fact that it acts exclusively as an empirical approach.
first rewind previous Strona / 3 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.