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Content available remote Albania: Preparing for a Comprehensive Pension Reform
This paper adds to the existing literature on the pension system in Albania and the challenges it faces. It provides an overview of the Albanian pension system and preconditions to be met for pension reforms, especially in setting up a second pillar pension. The Albanian pension system is distinguished from the systems of other Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries due to an underdeveloped introduction to a multi-pillar pension system to replace the defined benefit (DB), pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system. The political consensus to reform the pension system has been difficult to achieve. In addition, for years the authorities have been rather reluctant to provide incentives to support the emergence of a private pension system. With the extreme difficulties faced by the first pension pillar, Albania is on the brink of making major decisions with regard to fostering the development of its pension system. This paper aims at assessing the preconditions to be met by the authorities in the country to be able to introduce and develop the private and voluntary pension funds, and the current level of fulfilling such preconditions.
Content available remote Current approach to episiotomy: Inevitable or unnecessary?
An episiotomy is a surgical incision through the perineum made to provide sufficient area for the delivery of the infant. About 10 to 95% of women who deliver will have episiotomy depending on which part of the world they are having delivery. Too early episiotomy causes extensive bleeding and too late episiotomy causes the excessive stretching of a pelvic floor and lacerations could not be prevented. According to widely accepted arguments, there are many benefits of episiotomy for the neonate: prevention of injuries, shoulder dystocia and mental retardation of the infant. Benefits for the mother are: reduction of severe lacerations, prevention of sexual dysfunction, prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence. But those things could also be complications of episiotomy, if it is being used nonrestrictively. Some other complications are also extensive bleeding, hematoma or infection. There are many different opinions in literature about using episiotomy restrictively or routinely, so it is the right doubt arisen: is it inevitable or unnecessary? There is a wide variation in episiotomy practice, and the decision of performing it or not depends of actual clinical situation. There is still a great need for continuous obstetrics education according to the evidence based guidelines for the patient’s safety.
This study focuses on mapping the groundwater’s vulnerability to pollution in the region of Ouargla, located in the North-East of the northern Sahara, exposed to potential risks of alteration. By applying the methods (GOD, DRASTIC, and SINTACS), coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS), we were able to identify a medium to high vulnerability trend. In light of the results recorded, the DRASTIC and SINTACS methods prove to be more suitable for our study region. This makes it possible to highlight the recharge zones and land use as being the most vulnerable in the territory studied. The GOD method presents a strong vulnerability trend over 77.02% of the study area. Such a result is directly related to the depth of the water table. It can therefore be argued that this method is far from being representative of the reality on the ground because of these very heterogeneous characteristics.
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