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EN
Research objective. This study aimed at analysing the changes in the level of somatic indicators, the secretion profile of selected adipokines, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism indices and calcidiol concentration after a 12-week-long nordic walking (NW) exercise in middle-aged women. Research material and methods. The study included 13 women aged 45.5±4.2 years who participated in a 12-week-long NW exercise, 3 times a week, 90 minutes each. Each of the women had individually determined workout intensity zones which were monitored based on the heart rate. Prior to the exercise programme and after it, somatic traits were assessed and blood was sampled in order to make biochemical analyses. Results. In the examined women, a decrease in mean body weight by 2.5 kg and a reduction in fat mass (FM), on average by 3.8 kg (i.e. 4.6%), coupled with an increase in lean body mass (LBM) by 1.3 kg, were observed after 36 workout units. A significant decrease in TC, LDL-C and TG concentrations and no changes in HDL-C concentration occurred after the exercise, which contributed to lowered atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherosclerosis risk index (ARI). Conclusions. Individualised and regular physical activity in the form of NW had a protective effect on the body, resulting in improved body composition, adiponectin secretion profile, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and calcidiol concentration in middle-aged women.
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Content available remote Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons
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EN
The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15-17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects.
EN
Objectives This study examined the effects of 6-week Nordic walking (NW) workout with individually customized intensity, on the body composition, and oxidative stress biomarkers for women > 55 years of age. Material and Methods Sixteen sedentary women (age 58.1±2.02 years old, body mass index (BMI) 26.74±2.72 kg/m²) worked out the NW 3 times/week over the 6-week period. Training intensity, which reflected the dominance of oxygen metabolism, was determined based on changes in physiological indicators during graded exercise on a treadmill (walking with poles). The body composition and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood were measured before and after the exercise routine. Results After the training period, body weight, body fat percentage, body mass index and uric acid levels in serum decreased significantly (p < 0.05). At the same time the plasma total antioxidant status increased considerably (p < 0.05), while the total oxidative status and the oxidized low-density lipoproteins concentration levels did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Conclusions Within a relatively short time, the Nordic walking with the customized intensity level focused on the dominance of fat metabolism, decreased body fat and improved the blood antioxidant defense system for previously sedentary women. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):445–454
EN
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19-20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects.
EN
Background There are differences between dry and wet sauna baths because of the heat load and human body’s reactions. High humidity in a wet sauna makes evaporation of sweat from the skin surface more difficult. In addition, the dynamics of sweating is different in men and women. The aim of the study was to assess changes in physiological indicators and to compare the impact of dry and wet saunas on the thermal comfort feeling, which was assessed using the Bedford thermal scale, and the physiological strain index (PSI) and the cumulative heat stress index (CHSI) in young healthy women. Material and Methods Ten women aged 22−24 years took part in the study. A session in each sauna lasted 60 min and consisted of 3 thermal 15-min exposures, in 5-min intervals for rest and cooling with water. The temperature in the dry sauna was 91±1.2°C and in the wet sauna 59±1.3°C, while the humidity was 18±0.7% and 60.5±0.8%, respectively. Body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature ($ \text{T}_\text{re} $) and the thermal sensation (Bedford scale) were also measured. The PSI and CHSI values were both calculated. Results The average weight loss after a dry sauna bath was significantly higher than after a wet sauna bath. Significantly higher increases in $ \text{T}_\text{re} $, as well as in HR were observed after treatment in the wet sauna, compared to the dry sauna. Both treatments resulted in an increase in SBP and a decrease in DBP. The arduousness of thermal discomfort and the levels of PSI and CHSI were skurgreater in the wet sauna bathing than in the dry sauna. Conclusions Heat exposure in the wet sauna creates a greater burden for young women’s bodies than the same dry sauna treatment, and the changes observed in the examined traits were higher than in men subjected to similar thermal loads. Med Pr. 2019;70(6):701–10
PL
Wstęp Kąpiele w saunie suchej i w łaźni parowej ze względu na różny stopień obciążenia cieplnego wywołują też różne reakcje organizmu. Duża wilgotność powietrza w saunie mokrej utrudnia parowanie potu ze skóry. Ponadto dynamika pocenia się jest różna u kobiet i mężczyzn. Celem pracy była analiza zmian wskaźników fizjologicznych oraz porównanie wpływu sauny suchej i mokrej na odczucie komfortu cieplnego ocenianego w skali termicznej Bedforda, a także zbadanie wielkości obciążenia fizjologicznego (physiological strain index – PSI) i skumulowanego wskaźnika obciążeń cieplnych (cumulative heat stress index − CHSI) u młodych zdrowych kobiet. Materiał i metody W badaniach wzięło udział 10 kobiet w wieku 22−24 lat. Pomiary w obu typach sauny prowadzono w fazie folikularnej cyklu miesięcznego. Każda sesja trwała 60 min i składała się z trzech 15-minutowych ekspozycji cieplnych z 5-minutowymi przerwami na odpoczynek i schłodzenie wodą. Temperatura w saunie suchej wynosiła 91±1,2°C, w mokrej – 59±1,3°C; wilgotność powietrza, odpowiednio: 18±0,7% i 60,5±0,8%. Dokonano pomiarów masy ciała, ciśnienia skurczowego (systolic blood pressure − SBP) i rozkurczowego (diastolic blood pressure − DBP), częstości skurczów serca (heart rate − HR), temperatury rektalnej ($ \text{T}_\text{re} $) i odczuć termicznych według skali Bedforda. Wyliczono współczynniki obciążenia fizjologicznego: PSI oraz CHSI. Wyniki Po saunie suchej średnie ubytki masy ciała badanych kobiet były istotnie wyższe niż po kąpieli w saunie mokrej. Po zabiegu w saunie mokrej zaobserwowano istotnie większe przyrosty $ \text{T}_\text{re} $ oraz HR. Oba zabiegi powodowały wzrost SBP. Podczas obu kąpieli ciśnienie rozkurczowe ulegało obniżeniu. Subiektywne odczucie uciążliwości zabiegu oraz PSI i CHSI było większe podczas kąpieli w saunie mokrej. Wnioski Ekspozycja cieplna w saunie mokrej stanowi większe obciążenie dla organizmu młodych kobiet niż taki sam zabieg w saunie suchej, a zmiany badanych cech są większe od tych, które zaobserwowano u mężczyzn poddanych podobnym obciążeniom termicznym. Med. Pr. 2019;70(6):701–710
EN
Proper planning of the training process based on individual LT and AT metabolic thresholds is essential to improve athletic performance. Development of endurance in soccer players is mainly based on continuous runs and variable-intensity runs, supplemented with strength conditioning and sport-specific training. The aim of the study was to analyse selected parameters of physical capacity of soccer players after 8-week variable-intensity running training and circuit training. The experiment was carried out in a group of 34 soccer players aged 21 to 26 years. The athletes were divided into two groups: 17 people in the experimental group and 17 people in the control group. The experimental group was involved in 30-minute tempo runs two times a week for 8 weeks with variable intensity at AT. In the same period, the control group performed two 60-minute continuous runs at the intensity of 70-75%HRmax. The determination of metabolic thresholds used two indirect tests: the multistage shuttle run test (beep test) and maximal lactate steady state test (MLSS) with author's own modification. In order to evaluate maximal heart rate (HRmax), the research procedure was started from the beep test (distance: 20 m). The speed at the first level was 8.5 km/h and increased with each level by 0.5 km/h. Training of the experimental group where variable exercise intensity was used caused a statistically significant increase in HRmax (by 1.9%) and blood lactate levels at the AT (by 20.5%). The training in the experimental group led to the statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in the parameters of the following variables: HRmax (by 1.9%); lactate level (by 7.85); HR at the AT (by 1,9%); lactate level at the AT (by 20.5%). The assumptions of the experimental training did not cause statistically significant changes in pretest vs. posttest HRmax and blood lactate levels for the LT. Endurance training with high intensity is more effective in soccer players compared to training with moderate intensity. Development of special endurance in soccer should also assume the intensity and method of working similar to the method used during sport competition.
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