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Content available remote Analysis of crystallization process of selected Fe-based bulk metallic glasses
Purpose: The paper mainly aims to present the influence of annealing temperature on structural changes and magnetic properties of selected Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with chemical composition of Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4 (at.%). Design/methodology/approach: The investigated samples were cast in form of the rods with diameter of 1.5 mm by the pressure die casting method. The structure changes in function of annealing temperature were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The crystallization behaviour of the studied alloy was also examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Magnetic measurements of annealed samples included the initial magnetic permeability and the magnetic permeability relaxation measurements. Findings: The annealing process at temperature range from 373 to 773 K caused a structural relaxation of tested material, which caused the atomic rearrangements and changes of physical properties in relation to as-cast state. The annealing at higher temperatures (823-923 K) obviously caused a formation of a-Fe and iron borides crystalline phases. The increasing of annealing temperature significantly improved soft magnetic properties of examined alloy by increase the initial magnetic permeability and decrease the magnetic permeability relaxation. Practical implications: The investigation of the crystallization process of Fe-based metallic glasses is important for understanding the mechanisms of forming controlled microstructures of these materials with specific physical properties. Originality/value: A proper understanding of crystallization process of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses is still novel scientific problem.
Content available remote Creep strain recovery of Fe-Ni-B amorphous metallic ribbon
Creep strain recovery and structural relaxation of the amorphous metallic glass Fe40Ni41B19 after longtime loading at different annealing temperatures below the glass transition temperature have been studied using anisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dilatometry (TMA). It has been demonstrated that structural relaxation effects depend on the stress-annealing temperature of the amorphous ribbon. The structural relaxation states of the amorphous ribbon annealed at different temperatures under and without applied stress have been compared. The activation energy spectra were calculated from the anisothermal dilatometric measurements using the modern method based on the Fourier transformation technique. The influence of the annealing temperature on the shape of creep strain recovery spectra has been analyzed.
Temperature studies in the range 300 800 K of amorphous Fe80Nb6B14 alloy using Mössbauer spectroscopy are presented. It is shown that at a temperature close to 700 K iron clusters with non-collinear magnetic structure are formed. The observed magnetic permeability enhancement effect in the annealed at elevated temperatures alloy, which takes place in amorphous phase, is due to the strong ferromagnetic exchange between Fe clusters via the amorphous matrix and reduction of internal stresses.
Content available remote Phse stability and structural relaxation in Fe-Nb-B amorphous alloys
In the present paper the phase stability in the Fe86-xNbxB14 (26x68) group of amorphous alloys was examined by applying i) DSC measurements, ii) Young modulus versus temperature and iii) magnetic after effects. It was shown that different physical quantities i.e. i) the optimized magnetic permeability, ii) the heat of amorphous – crystalline transition and iii) the change of Young modulus taking place during structural relaxation of amorphous Fe-Nb-B alloys exhibit the remarkable maximum for x = 6 at.% Nb. The degree of amorphisation measured by the heat transition (energetic difference between amorphous and crystalline state) or by change of the Young modulus (intensity of structural relaxation) is the main reason of structural changes favorable for soft magnetic properties enhancement effect. Intensity of magnetic after effects, corresponding to the free volume content, decreases with increasing Nb content.
W niniejszej pracy badano stabilność fazową w amorficznych stopach Fe86-xNbxB14 (26x68) poprzez zastosowanie takich technik pomiarowych jak pomiary kalorymetryczne DSC, pomiary modułu Younga w funkcji temperatury oraz pomiary przenikalności magnetycznej po rozmagnesowaniu próbki. Z otrzymanych wyników wynika, że różne wielkości fizyczne (zoptymalizowana przenikalność magnetyczna, ciepło krystalizacji, zmiana modułu Younga w trakcie relaksacji strukturalnej) wykazują charakterystyczne maksimum dla próbek o zawartości x = 6% Nb. Na tej podstawie sformułowano wniosek, że stopień amorficzności badanych stopów, mierzony jako ciepło przemiany ze stanu amorficznego do krystalicznego (energia swobodna zamrożona procesie produkcji próbek) oraz zmiana modułu Younga (natężenie relaksacji strukturalnej), jest decydującym czynnikiem dla korzystnych, z punktu widzenia optymalizacji miekkich własciwości magnetycznych, przemian strukturalnych. Zmiana przenikalności magnetycznej po rozmagnesowaniu, odpowiadająca stężeniu mikropustek w strukturze amorficznej, maleje wraz ze wzrostem stężenia niobu.
Content available remote Crystallization of Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glasses ribbons
Purpose: The paper presents a crystallization process of Fe-based amorphous materials. The aim of work is presentation of the influence of annealing temperature on structural changes and magnetic properties of Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glasses. Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on metallic glasses as ribbons. Crystallization behaviour of the studied alloy was examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy methods. The soft magnetic properties examination of tested material contained magnetic permeability, coercive field, saturation induction and magnetic after-effects measurements. Findings: The XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations revealed that the studied alloy in as-cast state was amorphous. A two stage crystallization process was observed for studied material. The first stage of crystallization corresponding to the partial crystallization of .-Fe phase was followed by the formation of iron borides. It has shown that appropriate increasing of annealing temperature, significantly improved soft magnetic properties of examined alloy. The maximum of initial magnetic permeability is correlated with a minimum of coercive field. Practical implications: The soft magnetic properties of metallic glasses can be optimized by applying the appropriate conditions of heat treatment. Originality/value: The applied investigation methods are suitable to determine the changes of structure and the improvement of soft magnetic properties of examined Fe-based alloy in comparison with as-cast state.
Content available remote Magnetic and mechanical properties in FeXSiB (X=Cu, Zr, Co) amorphous alloys
Purpose: The idea of the paper is to study the influence of different alloying additions (Cu, Zr, Nb) on structural relaxation, crystallization, and improvement of soft magnetic properties in amorphous alloys of the type FeXSiB obtained by melt spinning technique. Design/methodology/approach: Magnetic and electric characteristics of the as quenched and successively annealed samples were determined at room temperature. Experiments were carried out by applying magnetic permeability measurements (Maxwell-Wien bridge), magnetic after effects, resistivity (four points probe), magnetostriction coefficient (infrared optical sensor) and magnetization (magnetic balance and fluxmeter). Findings: It was shown that soft magnetic properties of the examined alloys can be optimized by applying 1-h annealing at a specific temperature. The process of the improvement of soft magnetic properties is found to be diffusion controlled. The Arrhenius parameters of this process were determined by applying magnetic measurements. Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are a part of a broad area of examinations devoted to establishing of the influence of different alloying additions and thermal annealing on soft magnetic properties of amorphous alloys obtained by melt spinning technique. Practical implications: The examined alloys belong to a modern group of soft magnetic materials, which can be used as core transformers, magnetic sensors, shields of magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields etc. The obtained results may be used for preparing soft magnetic ribbons for specific applications. Originality/value: The originality of the paper lies in examination of the improvement of soft magnetic properties effect as a diffusion-controlled process. The influence of different alloying additions on the course of this process is well established.
Content available remote Magnetic properties of Co-based amorphous ribbon under cyclic heating and cooling
Purpose: The aim of the work is to investigate the changes of magnetic properties of the cobalt based Co68Fe4Mo1Si13.5B13.5 alloy under cycling heating and cooling. Design/methodology/approach: The amorphous metallic ribbons were manufactured by planar-flow-casting method. Investigations of the magnetic properties were observed under permanent heating amorphous and partially crystallized alloy. Observations of the structure were made on the JOEL transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the HFQS program the distributions of the magnetic hyperfine P(H) fields were determined for spectra smoothed in this way, employing the Hesse-Rübartsch method. Findings: The analysis of the magnetic properties under permanent heating and structure of the Co-based amorphous ribbons obtained in the by planar-flow-casting process proved that the permanent heating caused the crystallization of second magnetic phase after transition near to paramagnetic state. Research limitations/implications: The appropriate cyclic heating and cooling significantly decreasing soft magnetic properties of examined amorphous alloy. The cyclic heating beginning of elementary crystallization processes and the end of crystallization alloy. Practical implications: According to the results presented in the paper the examined Co-based glassy alloys as a soft ferromagnetic material may be utilized in construction of magnetic cores such as choke coils, common mode and noise filter and is of great technological interest. Originality/value: The paper presents influence of permanent heating on structural changes of metallic ribbons. Results and discussion of the influence of permanent heating on magnetic properties of metallic ribbon are presented.
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