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EN
The regulation at the european level is very important for the European Commission and the member states. The Commission has a particularly important role. It has the right to initiate draft directives, which will be codified by the Council and the European Parliament. There are extensive consulting mechanisms that dominate the financial sector, especially from the consumer groups or non-governmental organizations. Also, ECOFIN sessions are very important meetings, as they ultimately decide to adopt directives that can contribute to better reforms of the financial regulation. These reform processes also include the establishment of new directives on financial markets dealing with the elimination of inadequate regulation of credit rating agencies and very low capital requirements. In context of this, the civil society should evaluate where its own resources are to be invested within the European Community. It needs to be constantly monitored and, in particular, mobilized towards solving inefficient and fragmented mechanisms resulting from the financial regulation. The focus on the discovery of lobbies in the financial sector and on specific financial issues can be considered as an inevitable interest of developing countries in order to create more sustainable and equitable financial system at all levels.
EN
Since 1997 the EU Technology Information and Advisory Service is dealing with information dissemination on R&D programmes of EU, promotion of exploitation of R&D results and transborder technology transfer. The main fields of activitiy are the innovation transfer, promotion of application of energy efficiency methods and renewable energy sources in buildings, as well as providing information and advice to promote the Hungarian participation in the EU Sixth R&D Framework Programme.
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Content available remote Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period
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EN
The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by the OECD and Eurostat, the size and structure of Poland's services trade with the EU countries during the preaccession period and, basing on these data, analyzes the degree of Poland's competitiveness in the services trade with the EU countries in the years preceding Poland's accession to this integration group. In the paper, the size and structure of the export and import of services between Poland and the European Union as a whole as well as between Poland and individual EU countries are presented and the service sectors are identified in which Poland enjoys a comparative advantage and those in which there is no such advantage. Also, kinds of services are identified in which some EU countries specialize and, consequently, are Poland's competitors. The paper also deals with the phenomenon of the intrabranch trade as a kind of international exchange alternative to the interbranch trade, that in a particular way refers to the turnover of services.
EN
The objectives of the article include, firstly, identifying determinants of the capital needs of agriculture (at various levels), and secondly, an attempt to assess the feasibility of using repayable instruments for agricultural development in EU countries. A situation of the commodity agriculture in EU countries was depicted. A comparative assessment of current implementations of financial instruments in Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania was presented. While utilisation of repayable instruments may bring various benefits, the limitations of institutional and micro-economic considerations should be taken into account.
PL
Cele artykułu obejmują zidentyfikowanie determinant potrzeb kapitałowych rolnictwa (na różnych poziomach) oraz próbę oceny możliwości wykorzystania instrumentów zwrotnych do rozwoju rolnictwa w krajach UE. Dokonano też ogólnej charakterystyki sytuacji rolnictwa towarowego w krajach UE i oceny porównawczej dotychczasowych wdrożeń instrumentów finansowych na Łotwie, w Bułgarii i Rumunii. Choć wykorzystanie instrumentów zwrotnych może przynieść wiele korzyści (finansowych czy efektu rewolwingowego), to należy uwzględnić ich ograniczenia, rozpatrywane na płaszczyźnie instytucjonalnej i mikroekonomicznej.
EN
The issue of access to information and documents concerning the functioning of European Union institutions is extensive and complex. It encompasses all activities to promote or pro- vide citizens with information on the operation of European Union institutions, and in particu- lar the access to European Union materials, which is regulated by numerous separate provisions. The most important ones involve the principles behind the publishing of EU mate- rials and legal regulations on access to documents that have not been published and those sent to the archives. Consequently, there are separate regulations on information policy and the right to access documents. The author counterpoints the legal foundations for access to EU documents with the practical execution of this right and fulfillment of the provisions of EU in- formation policy.
EN
The EU-Turkey relations date back to 1960s when the European project started. With the Ankara Agreement of 12 September 1963, Turkey became an Associate member of the European Economic Community which was then an economic organisation from which today’s EU emerged. The EU’s December 1997 sidelining of Turkey’s application for full membership turned the direction on 3 October 2005 and Turkey begin its accession negotiations with the EU. Since then there is still ongoing debate based on cultural, economic and political assessment whether Turkey will fit to be a member of the EU. From the perspective of the institutional norms of Copenhangen criteria, the EU could possibly embrace all countries, regardless of culture, religion and historical background. The EU’s uncompleted institutional structure gives rise some spatial, temporal and thematic scopes which introduce some new accession criteria such as European state, European identity, absorption capacity, open-ended process and approval of the member states which will make more complicated Turkey’s full membership bid to the EU. Despite Turkey’s institutional reforms which bring the country that much closer towards fulfilling the Copenhagen criteria and its dynacmic economy which makes Turkey as the second country that fits the Maastricht criteria in Europe, European politicians and citizens remain deeply divided on Turkey’s accession bid to the EU as a full member. As a consequence, the alternative accession proposals which depreciate the full membership of Turkey are argued by the EU’s core members. The purpose of this article is to answer the vague accession criteria, the different accession proposals towards Turkey and explain the new bargaining position of Turkey for its accession bid to the EU. The exclusion of Turkey from the EU’s enlargement process will be evaluated by different theoretical approaches which constitute the interplay of the liberal intergovernmentalism, historical institutionalism and path dependency process, rationalist approaches and sociological institutionalism.
EN
The severe material deprivation rate indicates the proportion of the population that cannot fulfil at least four of the nine needs identified as basic ones in the European conditions. Due to being an absolute measure, it is very useful for cross-country comparison. This study attempts to identify country-level factors affecting severe material deprivation rate by the use of the GEE methodology which enables to analyse correlated fractional outcome data. It is found that severe material deprivation rate is affected by such factors as: median equalised disposable income, relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap, long-term unemployment rate, GDP per capita and share of social protection expenditure in GDP. Results reveal that GEE models with clog log link function exhibit the best goodness of fit. Due to these models imposing non-constant marginal effects, therefore, changes of the severe material deprivation rates depend on levels of country-level factors.
EN
In current paper, we have researched the influence of environmental policy stringency (EPS) on economic development of the EU-28. The problem of identifying the influence of stringency of environmental policy (EP) on economic development of the EU-28 is that currently there is no well-established understanding of what economic results can be achieved depending on the extent of EPS within a separate country. The paper aims at making contribution to theoretical, empirical and political scopes of perception of EP as an independent factor of economic development of the EU-28. The results of research indicate that EPS is the significant factor of economic development of the EU countries.
EN
In the article were shown the results of cross-sectional and dynamic analysis of diversification of the level and structure of household debt and the problems with its repayment in the EU countries over the period 2005-2009. In the article the multidimen-sional methods of data analysis (cluster analysis – k-means method) which enabled to classify the households in the EU according to the characteristics that were used describe its debt. Moreover, in order to determine the quantitative relationships between the level of household debt, and between the frequency of occurring the problem with debt repayment, the tools of correlation and regression analysis were used.
EN
There have been many geopolitical changes and economic factors that affected the mutual trade between the EU and its main trading partners between the years 2005 and 2016. In the long term, one of the most important trade partners of the EU is Russia. It is a major supplier of energy resources to the EU as well as significant export market for European producers. Even today, when mutual trade relations are negatively influenced by trade-political sanctions, the mutual dependence is undeniable. The submission evaluates the mutual trade between the EU and Russia with the use of selected indices - revealed comparative advantages, intra-industry trade and trade intensity. The analysis of these indicators points to strategic importance of this trade relation. However, if the EU wants to sustain this relation, it should consider how to solve the current tension and after that to strengthen future mutual relations.
EN
The article deals with the latest developments in the field of the digitisation of European cultural and scientific heritage. It presents the Dynamic Action Plan worked out by the National Representatives Group of the Member States, made up of experts of ministries and/or institutions engaged in cultural digitisation. It also examines the European Commission's Recommendations on the digitisation and online accessibility of cultural content and digital preservation, as well as the Council's Conclusion on this topic. The author gives indications on the activities that a Member State - like Hungary - should pursue in order to meet the requirements of the Information Society in the cultural area.
EN
Indebtedness is undoubtedly one of the most significant economic problems in the countries of the EU. Despite the fact that the EU-28 have adopted criteria and measures that should regulate indebtedness, the majority of member states are not keeping up to these previously agreed rules. For many countries indebtedness has become a barrier to further development. The article’s aim is to provide an overview of the indebtedness of EU member states and to explore whether this indebtedness is linked to or even dependent on selected economic characteristics (GDP, unemployment rate and social benefits paid as a share of GDP). Data from the EU-28 countries, the Eurozone and the countries outside the Eurozone will be studied separately on the assumption that there will be differences between the countries in the Eurozone and those outside it. In the investigation of the issue only secondary data from the official statistics can be used. All the data are taken from Eurostat and then processed using the standard methods of descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The analysis carried out showed that the average indebtedness of the EU-28 countries is higher than set by the EU criteria, and at the same time confirmed that there is a difference in debt levels between countries within and outside the Eurozone. The Eurozone countries show indebtedness that is overall higher than in countries outside the Eurozone, while at the same time they show a moderately strong linear dependence both between indebtedness and unemployment rates and between indebtedness and payments of social benefits. In the countries outside the Eurozone it was shown that while the relationship between indebtedness and the unemployment rate was weak that between indebtedness and the payment of social benefits was relatively strong.
EN
Fiscal governance is defined as a combination of institutions, rules and norms that structure good governance in the area of fiscal policy. It can be named as the specific mechanism of coordination by using of tools such as: budgetary procedures (legislative fiscal rules), fiscal rules (numerical) and independent fiscal institutions/ fiscal councils. Fiscal governance focuses on how the fiscal policy is planned, approved, conducted and monitored, including the involvement of not only public bodies, but the business sector and civil society too. In this study, particular attention was paid to capturing the essence of the relationship between the qualitative elements of fiscal councils activity and its impact on stabilizing the public finances in the view of fiscal governance concept. During the last world crisis in the EU countries, an interest in establishing fiscal councils has increased. Before 2008 there were only seven institutions in the EU, while in 2014 there are already 19. The question is - are these institutions efficient in stabilizing public finances? Therefore, the main objective of the article is the assessment of the role of the fiscal councils in the coordination of the fiscal policy in the EU Member States. The conducted analysis verifies this role on the basis of theoretical deliberation of the current state of the art. The empirical research verifies fiscal councils’ dependence on fiscal balance of EU countries. Research was conducted on the basis of the European Commission, Eurostat and International Monetary Fund data sets.
EN
Since the Balkan Wars in the 1990s, Serbia has been perceived by Europe as its enfant terrible. This is an effect of Serbian war crimes, of an unwillingness to cooperate with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and general reluctance towards Western political structures in Serbian society. The tension between the West and Serbia grew particularly high in 1999 during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, and in 2008 when Kosovo proclaimed independence. In spite of these tensions, within last few years Serbia has been successfully involved in a normalisation process with Kosovo as a part of its rapprochement with the EU. Serbia has opened itself to the West but it still maintains good relations with Russia, regardless of the Kremlin’s foreign policy activities. Hence, the author argues that rethinking relations and cutting certain ties with Russia should be among the key conditions for Serbia to join the EU, no less important than normalisation with Kosovo.
EN
The third part of the article deals with the legal basis for adopting a European Civil Code in Community law and with its legitimacy and outlines certain problems of European supranational codification of civil law concerning in particular a uniform application of unified rules, legal pluralism and the appropriate form of a supranational civil code. The author points out that the question of adopting a uniform civil code for Europe is not only related to legal, but also to many extralegal categories and policy-based considerations. As to the feasibility of a European Civil Code, the author comes to the conclusion that the rules of civil law can be unified in form of a uniform civil code. However, clear economic and political arguments in favour of such a solution are currently missing. Moreover, even if a political agreement to adopt a European code were reached, which seems improbable, without at least certain elements of a common legal culture, the unified rules would not be applied in a uniform way in various legal environments. Nonetheless, given the converging tendencies in the European legal area, the author concludes that European private law is on its albeit long way towards a European Civil Code. However, this code will almost certainly not be a classic code, but rather a postmodern open-textured set of rules the concrete form of which cannot predicted yet.
16
Content available remote Europejska polityka transportowa
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PL
Przesłanki tworzenia i cele europejskiej polityki transportowej - historyczne i aktualne. Sukcesy i niepowodzenia w realizacji tej polityki. Kierunki postulowanych zmian systemowych w transporcie Wspólnoty. Gałęziowa struktura transportu. Działania na rzecz poprawy konkurencyjności i zracjonalizowania udziału poszczególnych gałęzi transportu w przewozach ładunków i pasażerów.
EN
The premise of creation and aims of European transport policy - historical and current. Successes and failure in realization of this policy. Directions of postulated system changes in Community transport. Branch structure of transport. Working on improvement of competitiveness and rationalization of participation in particular branches of cargo and passengers transport.
17
Content available remote Unia Europejska a bezpieczeństwo transportu morskiego
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PL
Propozycje Komisji Europejskiej zmierzające do stworzenia w przyszłości bandery europejskiej. Działania legislacyjne mające na celu zwiększenie bezpieczeństwa transportu morskiego. Dotychczas wprowadzone regulacje chroniące przed wypadkami na morzu i zanieczyszczeniem środowiska. Trzeci pakiet KE w sprawie bezpieczeństwa na morzu. Czarna lista bander ustanowiona mocą Memorandum Paryskiego oraz lista 17 statków objętych zakazem wypływania z portów UE. Podsumowanie.
EN
European Commission proposals aiming at creation an European banner in future. The legislative activities tend to the enlargement of safety of sea carriage. Until now introduced regulations protecting against accidents at the sea and the environment pollution. The third packet of EC connected with safety at sea. The black list of banners appointed in force of Paris Memorandum as well as the list of 17 ships took over the prohibition of flowing out from harbours of EU. Summary.
EN
The EU policy towards the Rroms was formulated in the European Commission’s 2011 Communication. It was shaped by consultations with Rroms and the Member States. To a great extent, it was also consistent with pro-development of objectives of the EU. The Europe 2020 strategy focuses on employment, education, housing and access to medical services which are also response to a bad situation of Rroms in these areas. However, the EU does not concentrate on the problem of discrimination too much. What is more, the EU claims that after reaching a certain level of socio-economic indicators, the problem is solved automatically. Discrimination will not disappear without a deliberate intervention unless the Rroms assimilate. However, neither they, nor – at least theoretically – the EU accepts it. The main problem connected with Rroms’ articulation of needs, is the matter of legitimacy of representation of this group’s interests. The so-called “new leaders” are responsible for keeping contacts with the mainstream society. They formulate Rroms’ needs and influence the policy of the EU and the Member States. Unfortunately, they represent only small groups of Rroms. Moreover, In order to legitimize the representation of the Rromani society, they have to be a part of the Rromani community and submit to rules coming from traditional values. Due to these limitations, it is difficult to determine what are Rroms’ real expectations regarding the policy of the EU and the Member States towards them. On the basis of the Declaration of a Rromani Nation (IRU, 2000) and social practice, it may be supposed that the Rroms expect mainly the elimination of discrimination and respecting human rights. However, in practice, they receive a vague promise that discrimination will disappear in the future, provided that they join the mainstream of social and economic life of Europe.
EN
Transportation is essential for the functioning of the economy since mobility greatly supports growth and job creation. The transport sector in the EU employs about 10 million people and provides approximately 5% of the GDP. The efficiency of the transport systems is a prerequisite for competitiveness and significantly affects the quality of life of people. Logistics plays a key role in terms of sustainable and competitive mobility in Europe and other objectives, such as a cleaner environment, security of energy supply, and widely available transport facilities. The use of safe and environmentally friendly vehicles is the main priority of all modes of transportation. The key changes include alternative fuels, new materials, new propulsion systems as well as information technology and traffic management techniques. The organization of the transportation of raw materials and finished products within and outside the EU depends on the efficient operation of logistic networks. This is primarily an industrial activity and creating the right framework conditions is the responsibility of the relevant authorities. In my study I analysed the situation of logistics in Europe and in Hungary. In order to exploit the benefits and to avoid the disadvantages of globalization the European Union implements structural changes which I describe and analyse. Considering the EU and Hungary this paper covers the following areas: − The effects of globalisation, − The climate-, energy-, and environment protection policy of the EU and their connection to logistics, − Tendencies in the changes of the transport sector, − The possible changes in passenger and freight transport, − The characteristics of the infrastructure and the requirements for its development, − Future prospects of logistics. On the basis of my examinations I will draw conclusions and offer suggestions regarding modifications in areas I consider most problematic.
EN
Over the last few years, the institutions of the European Union and numerous in¬ternational organizations pay special attention to the situation of Roma and Sinti in Europe. Discrimination and human rights violations that face the Roma are known and widespread, but so far none of the European countries and governments worked out examples and best practices of effective protection of the members of this community. In this article, the author looks at the overall situation of Roma women, who are more likely than other women exposed to multiple, cross-sectoral, multi-layered discrimination on grounds of gender and ethnic origin, and also have limited access to employment, education, health, social services participation in civic life. This discrimination occurs in the majority society in the context of growing racist sentiment, romophobia, antiziganism, but also in Roma communities themselves. Romani women are also more likely than other women are exposed to various forms of violence, especially domestic violence, sexual abuse and trafficking.
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