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Forum Philosophicum
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2008
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tom 13
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nr 1
154-157
EN
The article reviews the book Śmierć, nieśmiertelność, sens życia. Egzystencjalny wymiar filozofii Ludwiga Wittgensteina [Death, Immortality, the Meaning of Life: The Existential Dimension of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophy], by Ireneusz Ziemiński.
Forum Philosophicum
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2008
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tom 13
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nr 2
389-395
EN
The article reviews the book Śmierć, nieśmiertelność, sens życia. Egzystencjalny wymiar filozofii Ludwiga Wittgensteina [Death, Immortality, the Meaning of Life: The Existential Dimension of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophy], by Ireneusz Ziemiński
3
Content available remote Psychologowie o sztuce życia
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PL
W artykule przedstawiam: (1) najważniejsze przesłanie Charlotty Bühler (prekursorki badań nad rozwojem człowieka w ciągu życia), dotyczące sensu życia rozumianego jako „przeznaczenie” go dla kogoś lub czegoś (np. idei, wartości); (2) przykłady realizacji tego przesłania, ujawnione przez psychologów (Xymena Gliszczyńska, Lidia Wołoszynowa, Edward Franus, Tadeusz Gałkowski, Bożydar L. J. Kaczmarek, Stanisław Mika, Kazimierz Obuchowski, Jan Strelau, Włodzimierz Szewczuk, Ziemowit Włodarski) w ich autobiografiach naukowych.
EN
In the article the author presents: (1) Charlotte Bühler’s (who was the very first person exploring human development in a life-span perspective) message concerning the meaning of life understood as “giving” one’s own life to someone or something (e.g. ideas, values); (2) examples of bringing this message into life as revealed by some psychologists’ scientific biographies (Xymena Gliszczyńska, Antonina Gurycka, Maria Jarymowicz, Maria Przetacznik-Gierowska, Lidia Wołoszynowa, Edward Franus, Tadeusz Gałkowski, Bożydar L. J. Kaczmarek, Stanisław Mika, Kazimierz Obuchowski, Jan Strelau, Włodzimierz Szewczuk, Ziemowit Włodarski).
EN
The meaning of life is an incredibly important indicator of psychological health, deficit of which may lead to numerous disorders and a lack of motivation to face everyday-life difficulties. A subjective vitality was defined as a subjective experience of the full energy and liveliness. Taking into account the fact that the subjective vitality and material status of a family are incredibly important variables looked at in the studies on school children and youth, we decided to check their relationship with the concept of the meaning of life among the youth. The survey-based experiment was conducted in 2016 in the schools. There were 643 participants – students of the grades 1-3 of the secondary school (358 boys, and 285 girls). The analysis showed that the gender and the grade of the students did not significantly affect the perceived meaning of life. However, there was a significant difference in the vitality between boys and also the grade 1 students compared to the girls and the grade 3 students. Girls and the grade 3 students were more likely to describe their families as poor. There was a significant interaction between the average meaning of life and the level of vitality among the students. The regression analysis showed that an average level of the vitality increased the likelihood of a high meaning of life almost three fold [OR = 2,91], and a high level of the vitality of life increased the likelihood of a high meaning of life almost eight fold [OR = 7,71].
5
Content available remote A MODEL FOR INDIVIDUAL’S MEANING OF LIFE
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EN
The aim of this article is to describe the empirical research about the development of the model for individualís meaning of life. The model was developed based on the findings in pilot study about the meaning of life characteristics in Latvian population. The pilot study and the current research is based on the assumption that the meaning of life is an important motive, which activates an individual behavioural style, directed towards the realization of a person’s individual potential. The theoretical basis for the study was the A. Langle’s theory (Langle 2002) about individual crisis ñ a question about the meaning of events emerges when a person encounters crisis. In order to solve the crisis, person must find the answer to why is this happening, thus adding a meaning. In this process, a bigger meaning emerges about the quality of human life, which is described by integrated model of behavioural style, developed by R. Akhmerov (Akhmerov 2015), T. Gavrilova (Gavrilova 2015), S. Kuznetsova and E. Osin (Kuznetsova, Osin 2015). The study sample consisted of 100 respondents (50 women and 50 men, average age - 43 years), who gave written answers to 5 open-ended questions and the answers were analysed using deductive qualitative content analysis. The questions were about the development of the individual, roles of the individual, group formation, prohibitions. After data processing, a model for individualís meaning of life was developed, which includes 72 dispositions; 3 functioning areas of the individual and then in general categories - 8 significant motives - meanings of life on which the 8 behavioural models are based. This model is intended rather practical for individually practicing counsellors and therapists, who can assess the meaning of life by the criteria and adjust each individualís behaviour in order to reach oneís potential. Further research could focus on developing a quantitative assessment method to analyse the meaning of life’s structure.
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EN
One of John Paul II’s remarkable innovations was his embrace of the question of “the meaning of life.” The question of “the meaning of life” was never asked before the 19th century, and it was slow to be integrated into Catholic discourse. When the question of life’s meaning emerged, it effectively replaced a prior question, about the purpose or telos of life, with a very different set of theoretical assumptions. From the traditional perspective, the question of life’s meaning is highly suspicious, and even Pope John Paul II’s unparalleled embrace of the question confirms that he framed his personalism in terms of the older question of life’s purpose or telos.
EN
Rev. Franciszek Sawicki (1877-1952), undoubtedly the most prominent member among the Pelplin scholars, chose as a one of the topics of his writings the problem of the suffering, its meaning and importance for the human existence. Sawicki, as he strives to classify various instances of the evil and its manifestations, puts a question about what might be the meaning of the suffering in the context of the faith. The mundane experience of happiness binds us with this world. The suffering and death, on the other hand, directs the human being towards the supreme good and the true end of our lives which is God himself. As an outcome of the enquiry made by this sage of Pelplin we obtain a very interesting interpretation of the mystery of suffering which has an existentially optimistic dimension.
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Content available OBRAZ NOCY W LIRYCE KONSTANTEGO FOFANOWA
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EN
In the article the analysis of the night that occures in Konstanty Fofanov’s (1862–1911) lyric poetry has been carried. Just as in the writings of his great predecessors – Fiodor Tutchev and Afanasy Fet, the night in his poetry possesses twofold dimension. On the one hand, it induces the contemplation on the meaning of human life, sufferings and death, on the other hand, descriptions made under a direct influence of observation of nature are converted into paintings in which colour, light, sound and smell occupy important position.
EN
The contemporary „homo consumens” does not want to accept that his ontic status is still best defined by the words „homo patiens”. Today’s attempts to eliminate suffering through constantly stimulated consumption may be considered as an act of the „degradation” of humans and humanity who by rejecting the truth about their nature as suffering creatures, paradoxically also lose the meaning of their life. If one denies suffering, then – at the same time – one closes oneself before life. For the escape from suffering is anything but the escape from life, at least the one that is experienced in a conscious and sensible way.
EN
The role of existential/spiritual domain of personality in adolescent health behavior is an underinvestigated research field in health psychology. The present study is based on the results of a research carried out in a sample of Transylvanian adolescents (N = 406; aged between 15–18 years, mean age = 16.5 year; 42.1% males and 57.9% females) focused on the association between meaning of life and health and risk behaviors. Calculating odds ratios, our analyses revealed an inverse direction in their relationships with searching for meaning of life and hopelessness (for example, for the relationship between searching for meaning and risk behavior: OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.674–0.946, p < 0.01; whereas for the relationship with hopelessness: OR = 1.149, 95% CI = 1.032–1.279, p < 0.05). These data point out that searching for meaning in life is not a negative status or a deficiency but on the contrary, it is more a cognitive-motivational structure that is linked to determining meaning. On the other hand, the results highlight that in adolescence the influence of searching for meaning is more determinant in terms of health and risk behaviors than meaning of life itself.
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EN
The study assumes that a feeling of meaningfulness of the world and life is an important part of the development of personality of a child and an adolescent. The study presents several other studies that show how the experienced meaningfulness influences the health and the quality of life in the early years. An adolescent sometimes brings the question of the meaning of life to existential limits; he/she seeks his/her own identity. This process is often accompanied by inner shocks. Even children need to understand meaningful contexts and connections. Meaning of life is also one of the goals of upbringing and education. The article presents a short overview and a description of psychological techniques and games that concentrate at the meaning of life. They are not concrete instructions, but types of activities that can be of benefit by the work with children and youth. Games are suitable means, because they are part of the lives of children and at same time they present one of the important means of upbringing and education.
SK
Štúdia vychádza z predpokladu, že pocit zmysluplnosti sveta a života je dôležitou súčasťou vývoja osobnosti dieťaťa a dospievajúceho. Podáva viaceré výskumy, ktoré poukazujú na to, ako prežívaná zmysluplnosť vplýva v mladom veku na zdravie a kvalitu života. Dospievajúci niekedy vyhrocuje otázku o zmysle života až existenciálne, hľadá vlastnú identitu, čo je neraz sprevádzané vnútornými otrasmi. Už deti potrebujú chápať zmysluplné súvislosti. Zmysel života je aj jedným z cieľov výchovy. Článok podáva stručný prehľad a popis psychologických techník a hier zameraných na zmysel života. Nejde o konkrétne podrobné návody, ale o typy činností, ktoré môžu pri práci s deťmi a mládežou byť prínosom. Hra ako prostriedok je vhodná preto, lebo je neoddeliteľnou súčasťou života detí a zároveň je jedným z dôležitých prostriedkov výchovy.
EN
Self-relations of mothers raising adult children with severe intellectual disability constitute a documentation of motherhood diverging from an established role model of a mother and a woman. The narratives show that this group of women struggle with many difficult experiences and emotions related to their own existence. The aim of this paper is to analyse existential experiences of interviewed mothers in terms of reflections on the meaning of life and future, as well as questions such as ‘Why me?’, often asked by the interlocutors. I will make an attempt to identify determinants of these experiences.
PL
The autopsy of mothers raising adult children with profound intellectual disability is a documentation of maternity that varies from the commonly accepted role model of the mother and the role of the woman. Narrative conversations show that this group of women is struggling with many difficult experiences and emotions related to their own existence. The purpose of this article is the analysis of the existential experiences of the examined mothers in the level of reflection and the questions “why me?”, the meaning of life and the future. An attempt will also be made to find determinants conditioning them.
13
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PL
W artykule autorka prezentuje wyniki badań, których celem było poznanie poczucia sensu życia osób starszych. Podstawą do ich przeprowadzenia była teoria emocjonalizmu. W badaniach został zastosowany ustny indywidualny wywiad pogłębiony. Wywiady zostały przeprowadzone w sanatorium w Ustroniu (w 2014 r.). Wyniki pokazały, że osoby uczestniczące w badaniu w większości odczuwają sens w swoim życiu. Sens ich życiu nadają głównie osoby bliskie – mąż, żona, dzieci oraz wnuki. Utrata członka rodziny może spowodować utratę sensu życia. Badani podkreślali często, że dobra materialne nie są w stanie zapewnić szczęścia. Uzależniali oni niejednokrotnie swoje poczucie sensu od sytuacji osób bliskich – szczęście najbliższych dawało im samym radość. Narratorzy wskazywali na to, że poczucie sensu zależy także od wykonywanych czynności, poczucia produktywności, robienia czegoś na rzecz innych. Także pasja i zainteresowania przyczyniają się do zadowolenia. Podsumowując – można stwierdzić, że przeżyć życie sensownie to realizować swoje cele życiowe i dążyć do spełniania potrzeb.
EN
In the article the author presents the results of research aimed at understanding the meaning of life of older people. The basis was the theory of emotionalism. Oral individual in-depth interview was used in the study. The author conducted interviews in a sanatorium in Ustronie (in 2014). The results showed that most participants in the study feel the sense of meaning. The meaning of life is mostly given by family – husband, wife, children and grandchildren. Loss of a family member can result in a loss of the meaning of life. Seniors often spoke that money do not buy happiness. They often relate their meaning of life with the situation of their family members. Narrators indicated that satisfaction also depends on activity and doing something for others. Passion and interests are also important. To live life well, is to pursue life goals and to meet the needs.
14
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Studia Gilsoniana
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2021
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tom 10
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nr 3
517-544
EN
Joshua Hochschild credits John Paul II for the success of the expression “meaning of life” among Christians, but he warns that this expression stems from a modern framework different from classical theism. Hochschild’s criticism challenges theists to clarify how the quest for meaning channels the basic questions of classic theism while advancing new ones. First, I will propose a different historical reconstruction of the “meaning of life,” tracing its origin back to the medieval sensus and its use in Biblical hermeneutics. Second, I will show that existentialism and phenomenology are the heirs of this legacy, and their use of the “meaning of life” is mostly positive. Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI adopted this expression under their influence. Finally, I will argue that the theistic quest for the “meaning of life” addresses classic questions such as happiness and the purpose of human life in the universe, and raises new questions regarding the individual purpose, the history of salvation, and the narrative of life.
15
Content available remote Role víry v prožívání smysluplnosti života u vysokoškolských studentů
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EN
Problem: The aim of this paper is to verify the existence of differences in experiencing life meaningfulness of believers and unbelievers and analyze how much faith affects life meaningfulness. Methods: The sample consisted of 213 university students aged 20-29 years (mean age = 23). Respondents were divided into three groups: Christians (N = 80), Buddhists (N = 25), atheists (N = 108). We used a Existential Scale (ES) questionnaire, 46-item tool, detecting a subjective measure of personal meaningful existence in two dimensions: Personality (sub-dimensions Self-distance and Self-transcendence) and Existentiality (sub-dimensions Freedom and Responsibility). Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Using independent t–test, it was confirmed that life meaningfulness was significantly lower for unbelievers in dimension Personality, t(180,943) = 7,013), p < ,001 (this represented a strong effect, d = ,983) and ES Total Score, t(175,424) = 4,201, p < ,001 (this represented a medium effect, d = ,592). Subsequent independent one-way ANOVA (using Welch F) indicated that believers demonstrate a higher life meaningfulness in the dimensions Personality, F (2, 84,212) = 32,062, p < ,001, Self–distance, F (2, 69,585) = 8,556, p < ,001, Self–transcendence, F (2, 79,331) = 26,058, p < ,001, and in ES Total Score, F (2, 74,285) = 9,133, p < ,001. A post hoc Games–Howell indicated that believers (Christians and Buddhists) scored significantly higher in Personality (strong effect, ?2 = ,23), Self-transcendence (strong effect, ?2 = ,19), Self-distance (medium effect, ?2 = ,07), and ES Total Score (medium effect, ?2 = ,07) than atheists. In Personality and Self–transcendence Buddhists also scored significantly higher than Christians. A linear regression was further performed. The faith (Christianity and Buddhism) was a significant predictor of life meaningfulness in ES Total Score, dimension Personality and its sub–dimensions. The religion explains 7,6% (R2 = ,076) of ES Total Score variance, 18,7% (R2 = ,187) of Personality variance, 16,9% (R2 = ,169) of Self–transcendence variance, and 6,9% (R2 = ,069) of Self–distance variance. Finally, we analyzed the influence of gender on the relationship between faith and life meaningfulness. A Pearson correlation explored the relationship between faith and life meaningfulness. This analysis was found to be statistically significant in dimension Personality, r(209) = ,433, p < ,001, and ES Total Score, r(209) = ,276, p < ,001, indicating a strong positive relationship. This relationship was then subjected to a first-order partial correlation in order to explore the relationship controlling for the effects of social support. The first-order correlation was found to be statistically significant in dimension Personality, r(209) = ,432, p < ,001, and ES Total Score, r(209) = ,278, p < ,001, indicating that gender doesn’t affect a relationship between faith and life meaningfulness. Discussion: Analysis confirmed the differences in life meaningfulness depending on faith and corresponds with the results of earlier studies (cf. Mahoney & Grace, 1999; Fromm, 2001; Halama, Martos & Adamová, 2010; Yalom, 2006). Faith seems to facilitate understanding of one’s own world as meaningful, and through religious dogma, traditions and rules provides a firm meaningful life framework. Higher scores of meaningfulness at Buddhists can be explained by the fact that Buddhism compared with Christianity more potentiates the possibility of self-development and a positive perception of the world. The influence of faith on the perceived life meaningfulness is however rather smaller, but still significant. This is consistent with previous studies (cf. Byron & Miller-Perrin, 2009). The biggest influence is evident in the dimension Self-transcendence. Faith, therefore, affects more emotional than cognitive aspects. This is consistent with the fact that faith is more a matter of the heart than sense, rather a kind of sensed, animistic beliefs than rational logical conclusions. The research has some limitations. The research sample consist of specific group of university humanities students. More general population may therefore produce different results. Also the concept of faith (religiosity) was measured in simplex way. For future research it would be desirable to accurately distinguish the different forms of faith (spiritual beliefs) and also monitor their intensity. This could provide further/ deeper insight into the issue of relationship between faith and life meaningfulness. Conclussion: Believers and unbelievers university students significantly differ in their experience of life meaningfulness, especially in the domain of Personality. The actual impact of the faith is not too large and ranges from 6,9 to 18,7% of the explained variance of meaningfulness. The research results and lack of studies on certain aspects of this issue indicate the need for further investigation of the topic.
EN
The paper examines the role of art (creativity) in the development of the sense of life of inmates. The goal of this study is to show the relationship between creative activity of prisoners and their understanding of the meaning of life. The study was conducted on the set of natural groups: from the group of 41 men, 19 qualified for the experimental group (active creatively) and 22 qualified for the control group (uncreative activity). The two groups did not differ in terms of age, marital status, length of sentence, education, criminal record, or a sense of loneliness. The results show that men undergoing imprisonment and exhibiting interest in some form of active participation in the arts were characterized by a higher level of search for the meaning of life in comparison with the prisoners having no creative activity. The results are consistent with the other studies carried out among the socially disadvantaged.
PL
Rodzicielstwo to jedna z ważniejszych ról, jakie człowiek pełni w życiu. Ma ona szczególny charakter, gdy dziecko jest niepełnosprawne, chore, czy też wykazuje zaburzenia rozwojowe. Badania empiryczne przedstawione w artykule dotyczą charakterystyki rodzicielstwa w przypadku rodziców dzieci z zaburzeniami ze spektrum autystycznego. Starano się określić sposób realizacji roli rodzicielskiej przez matki i ojców, ich poziom poczucia sensu życia, a także zależności między tymi zmiennymi. Zbadano 80 rodziców dzieci z zaburzeniami ze spektrum autyzmu. Jako narzędzia badawcze wykorzystano: Kwestionariusz Realizacji Roli Rodzicielskiej Żanety Stelter oraz Test Celów Życia PIL Jamesa C. Crumbaugha i Leonarda T. Maholicka. Analizy wykazały istotne powiązanie między mierzonymi zmiennymi.
EN
Parenthood is one of the most important roles people have in their lives. This role is unique when parents’ child is disabled, ill or suffers from developmental disorders. The empirical study presented in this article refers to the description of parenthood in the case of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders. The author attempted to determine how mothers and fathers performed their parental roles as well as their meaning of life level and relationships between these variables. The study covered 80 parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders. The following research tools were used: the Parental Role Performance Questionnaire by Żaneta Stelter and the Purpose in Life test (PIL) by James C. Crumbach and Leonard T. Maholik. Analyses showed significant connections between the variables measured.
EN
The analysis of the empirical evidence obtained as a result of research led by the author in Sandomierz has revealed that the secondary school seniors are characterized by a high level of overall satisfaction with life. The problem of the meaning of life constitutes a vital and important problem for them. Young people often think about it and in general express a positive attitude towards life. We can claim that fairly common satisfaction preserves the sense of existence whereas the sense is a condition for happiness understood as satisfaction. Among values possessing the rank of success the foremost place is taken by family happiness. A decisive majority of researched subjects tends to subordinate their satisfying and well paid job as well as high qualifications guaranteeing a good job to happy family life and personal happiness. In the hierarchy of five most important aims giving sense to life the determining value was given to love. This value is connected with a happy family in which there are children and having a job provides financial security. Every third respondent indicates their deep faith (the same number declared possessing deep faith) as the determinant of the sense of meaning. Among the very important matters we can find that the family, friends, acquaintances and work receive higher ranks than religion. In the context of the ultimate goal, family happiness is twice as often indicated as faith in God and the salvation of the soul. Preferred goals are more often characterized as individual rather than social values, more often everyday rather than religious values, more often specific than general ones. Young people appreciate a stable life thanks to their work and affirm personal relationships and interpersonal contacts. The results of sociological research do not give a comprehensive picture of the views of the graduate youth of Sandomierz on the meaning of life, but point to several important aspects that testify to its well-established sense. 
PL
Analiza materiału empirycznego uzyskanego w wyniku badań przeprowadzonych przez autorkę w Sandomierzu wykazała, że młodzież klas maturalnych cechuje wysoki  poziom ogólnego zadowolenia z życia. Zagadnienie sensu życia stanowi dla niej żywotny i ważny problem. Młodzież często o nim rozmyśla i wyraża w zasadzie pozytywny stosunek do życia. Można postawić tezę, że dość powszechne zadowolenie utrwala poczucie sensu istnienia, a sens jest warunkiem szczęścia pojmowanego jako zadowolenie. Wśród wartości  mających rangę sukcesu naczelne miejsce zajmuje szczęście rodzinne. Zdecydowana większość badanych skłonna jest udanemu życiu rodzinnemu i osobistemu  podporządkować satysfakcjonującą i dobrze płatną pracę oraz zdobycie wysokiego wykształcenia gwarantującego dobrą pracę. W hierarchii pięciu najważniejszych celów nadających życiu sens determinujące znaczenie przypisano miłości. Ta wartość łączy się ze szczęśliwą rodziną, w której są dzieci, a posiadana praca zapewnia bezpieczeństwo finansowe. Co trzeci badany jako determinantę poczucia sensu wskazuje głęboką wiarę (tyle samo osób zadeklarowało posiadanie głębokiej wiary). Wśród spraw bardzo ważnych rodzina, przyjaciele i znajomi, a także praca zyskały wyższą rangę niż religia. W kontekście celu ostatecznego szczęście rodzinne jest dwukrotnie częściej wskazywane niż wiara w Boga i zbawienie duszy. Preferowane cele mają częściej charakter wartości indywidualnych niż społecznych, częściej wartości codziennych niż religijnych, częściej konkretnych niż ogólnych. Młodzież ceni sobie ustabilizowane życie dzięki posiadanej pracy oraz afirmuje związki osobowe i kontakty międzyludzkie. Wyniki badań socjologicznych nie dają wprawdzie całościowego obrazu poglądów młodzieży maturalnej Sandomierza na sens życia, ale wskazują na kilka istotnych aspektów, świadczących o jego ugruntowanym poczuciu. 
EN
The article is focused on the category of national identity in the perspective of realizing the meaning of life and satisfying social needs by older people living in a foreign country (Canadian Polonia). In relation to the theory of identity formation and life in a multicultural world, the subject of research was patriotic attitudes of the elderly. The aim of the research was to diagnose and describe how elderly people born in Poland and living abroad understand their homeland, national identity. The research problem has the form of a question: What is the role of the elderly in building the national identity of people living abroad? The research was conducted with the qualitative interview method. In order to show the importance and value of actions taken by the elderly to shape the national identity of young generations, an interview was conducted among 36 seniors living in Canada. With regard to their experiences and needs related to the transmission of culture and national traditions of Poles, they indicated their role and importance in the shaping of national identity and the need for the commemoration of national traditions in order to cultivate the values characteristic of the Polish nation. The final conclusions propose actions enabling shaping the national identity of people living abroad.
PL
W niniejszym artykule skoncentrowano się na kategorii tożsamości narodowej w perspektywie realizacji sensu życia i zaspokojenia potrzeb społecznych przez osoby starsze mieszkające na obczyźnie (Polonia Kanadyjska). W odniesieniu do teorii kształtowania tożsamości oraz życia w wielokulturowym świecie przedmiotem badań uczyniono postawy patriotyczne osób starszych. Ich celem było poznanie i opisanie, jak rozumieją ojczyznę i tożsamość narodową osoby starsze urodzone w Polsce, a żyjące na obczyźnie. Problem badawczy przyjął postać pytania: Jaka jest rola osób starszych w budowaniu tożsamości narodowej osób mieszkających na obczyźnie? W celu ukazania znaczenia i wartości działań podejmowanych przez osoby starsze na rzecz kształtowania tożsamości narodowej młodych pokoleń przeprowadzono wywiady wśród 36 seniorów mieszkających w Kanadzie. W odniesieniu do doświadczeń i potrzeb związanych z transmisją kultury i tradycji narodowych Polaków wskazano na ich rolę i znaczenie w kształtowaniu tożsamości narodowej oraz na potrzeby sięgania do narodowych tradycji w celu kultywowania wartości charakterystycznych dla narodu polskiego. W konkluzjach zaproponowano działania umożliwiające kształtowanie tożsamości narodowej osób żyjących na obczyźnie.
EN
At the crossroads of philosophy, religion and literature arises the question of meaning. The feeling of absurdity of the world and the loss of the meaning of life, accompanied by a desperate attempt to (re)create it, are typical for people stigmatized by borderline experiences of collective traumas, such as war. As a combatant of the Second World War and a great admirer of Marcel Proust, Claude Simon undertakes a tireless search for lost meaning, which emerges discreetly behind the pessimism with which he describes the absurdity of the world. A close reading of his most famous novel, La Route des Flandres (1960), reveals to us some subtle indications about this quest for meaning, which becomes also a quest for identity.
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