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Content available remote The prevalence and causes of bodily injuries in martial art kung-fu
Study aim: To assess the prevalence and causes of physical injuries in male adolescents participating in martial art kung-fu National competitions.Material and methods: A group of 248 male subjects aged 14 - 18 years, participants of Iranian National Championships 2007, were subjected to questionnaire study. They were requested to answer questions about the types and causes of injuries they experienced. Chi-square function was used in data analysis.Results: The injury risk was 28%. Among organ injuries, the prevalence of lower extremity ones was highest (61.9%; p<0.01) while among soft tissue injuries, the muscle tendon ones were most frequent (42.4%; p<0.01). The main injuries were contusions (32.4%) and sprains (30.9%), the main cause of injuries being the opponent's kicks (64%) and the main circumstance - opponent's technical foul (17.5%).Conclusions: The quantitative prevalence of diverse injuries in the martial art kung-fu and of their causes ought to be considered by coaches, sport managers and the athletes when undertaking kung-fu training, organising competitions, etc.
Content available remote Comparison of Static Balance and the Role of Vision in Elite Athletes
When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB) was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP) on a force platform during a 30 s bipedal quiet standing posture in 4 conditions: firm surface with opened and closed eyes, foam surface with opened and closed eyes. Three-factor ANOVA indicated a significant main effect for groups (F=21.69, df=2, p<0.001, η2 = 0.34). Significant main effect of vision (F=43.20, df=1, p<0.001, η2 = 0.34) and surface (F=193.41, df=1, p<0.001, η2 = 0.70) as well as an interaction between vision (eyes open, eyes closed) and surface (firm and foam) (F=21.79, df=1, p=0.001) were reported in all groups. The subsequent Bonferroni-Dunn post hoc test indicated that rugby players displayed better static balance than sprinters and jumpers (p=0.001). The comparison of sprinters and jumpers did not reveal significant differences (p>0.05). The nature of the sport practiced and the absence of visual control are linked to modify static balance in elite athletes. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are recommended to use a variety of exercises to improve balance, including both exercises with opened and closed eyes on progressively challenging surfaces in order to make decisions about tasks and sensory availability during assessment and training.
Content available remote Influence of various preseason training in elite youth soccer players
immediate feedback concerning brain activity on autotelic engagement attention and the performance of athletes’ minds. Material and methods: the experimental group (25 subjects) underwent twenty neurofeedback-EEG training sessions (in the relaxation armchair) and athletic training for four months (every 7 days). The control group (25 subjects) underwent athletic training sessions. Before and after the four months of neurofeedback-EEG training sessions, the athletes were evaluated using an involvement questionnaire and Kraepelin’s work curve test. Results: the results of the analysis showed that changes in autotelic engagement were observed with an improvement in the performance of the mind (p < 0.01), which points to increased speed and mental work speed and efficiency. Among three measures of performance, we observed a significant correlation between the total number of addition operations in the test with autotelic experience (r = 0.769). Conclusions: neurofeedback-EEG training opens up new opportunities for improvement in the performance of athletes’ minds.
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