The basic aim of the study is the analysis of the changes in the territorial structure of farms and the use of lands in Poland within the range of provinces in the years 2002-2010. In order to realize the established goal, the results of the Agricultural Census conducted in 2010 were used. From the conducted studies it results, that in the years 2002-2010 in Poland there occurred essential changes in the territorial structure of farms, in total 655 thousand (22,3%) of farms disappeared. The number of farms up to 30 acreage was subject to decrease. The increase of farms occurred only in the territorial groups above 30 acreage of arable land. The changes in the structure of the use of land are coincident with the changes in the territorial structure of farms. There occurred a very considerable loss of land used by the smallest farms. The increase of the use of land occurred only at farms bigger than 30 acreage of arable land. . In 2010 only 4% of farms of the area over 30 acreage used almost 39% of land resources, while only 0,44% of farms over 100 acreage has been using about 23% of arable land. Ali the time the so-far existing spatial distribution of farms has been preserved, as far as territorial structure of farms and the use of land is concerned. In the northern, western and central-western Poland there prevail bigger farms that have been using more than 50% of land. On the other hand, in the southern and south-eastern Poland, the share of small farms using most of the lands is bigger.