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EN
The study shows how the body was conceptualized from a theoretical point of view, how it was classified, normalized, disciplined and how the struggles for its liberation took place, argues why it is (not) necessary to talk about the female body, points to certain intersections between anthropology and feminist theory. The main purpose of the text is to capture how the feminist understanding of the female body and corporeality developed, to point out the main points of the "reversal" that fundamentally influenced feminist thinking and at the same time to give space to less visible feminist discourse – all with an emphasis on the Slovak home environment. It also points out that the thinking about the body and the corporeality is firmly linked to the idea of gender as the central theoretical concept of feminism, on the one hand and the "woman" on the other, as a subject of feminist politics. It is the female body and corporeality that largely reflects the gap between feminist theory (thinking) and practice (politics). In the first part of the thesis the study will provide a theoretical insight into the research of the (female) body and corporeality from a feminist perspective. The themes/subjects/motifs of body and corporeality have been at the centre of feminist debates since the beginning, from Simone de Beauvoir's philosophical considerations to Judith Butler. They also play an integral part of past and present ethnological and anthropological research, which has reflected the diverse socio-cultural meanings of the body, often in the context of gender and sexuality. The development of anthropological thinking has largely shaped the conflict between social and biological determinism. In contrast to the dominant poststructuralist discourse in academic feminism, the study in the next chapters of the thesis from an ethnological perspective will focus on various forms of the struggle of the current feminist movement for female bodies, focusing on the Slovak context, under the slogan "my body, my choice".
EN
This paper opens up the question of corporeality and materiality in Christian religion. In the introduction I present the basic relation of Christianity to the Hellenic culture, where the first concepts of theological thinking and spiritual dictionaries were born. Waves of dualistic spiritual tendencies have often been rising since the first centuries, always corrected by the searching for a balanced perception of the relationship between spiritual and corporal. The remaining sections of the article offer a rehabilitation of materiality and corporality, a striving that has been occurring permanently in the history of the entire theological tradition. Small subtemes are a reference to and support for the "body", viewed not as a prison, but as a place where the spirit expresses itself.
EN
Bulgarian Literature in its development does not avoid issues of the body. This work is devoted only one aspect, taking into account the participation of bodily gestures in the poetics of lyrical pieces. For this purpose various gestures are quoted and analysed in different thematic areas, allowing to include social-cultural transformations and the transformation of the literary paradigm. The linguistic expression of the corporeality in poems by authors recognised as famous representatives of the Bulgarian lyric poetry facilitates the dialogue with contemporary reality.
EN
In this paper, we outline the basic characteristics of body and corporeality as presented in Claude Tresmontant's work. We logically organize and interpret his thought tendencies in mutual interrelation. We will point out the importance of body and corporeality in Christian theology, and emphasize the argumentative language of Tresmontant's philosophy and its contribution to modern theological anthropology.
EN
The descriptions of bodies, and above all of mimicry and gesture in F.M. Dostoevsky’s novels Crime and Punishment and The Idiot have a very big conceptual significance. Descriptions can often replace character’s text, and author’s remarks can describe character’s personality more and better than their own words. Physical transmission of their psychology and sensations is one of the most peculiar Dostoevsky’s literary techniques, a sign of his mastership.
EN
The text deals with the contemporary Croatian dramas by Lada Kaštelan (The Last Link, Before Sleep) and Ivana Sajko (23rd Kitten, Woman-bomb). They are presented as interesting examples of “maternity literature” and illustrations of different, often shown in an unusual way, aspects of motherhood. They also provide confirmation of correctness that in this experience the realm of biological, psychological and spiritual are strongly correlated with each other, they coexist and collaborate. Croatian playwrights demonstrated new models of extra/ordinary female identity and different, undesirable, non-performing aspects of motherhood that concern the woman’s body, psyche and spirituality. In this very interesting way the authors tried to redefine and reinterpret the existing regulation of motherhood. These works reveal that maternity remained a contested terrain despite its association with an increasingly standardized set of values and expose the negotiations about the cultural meanings of family, womanhood and motherhood. Furthermore, they explore and challenge conventional maternal ideology and expose gaps in the mythology of ideal motherhood. Lada Kaštelan and Ivana Sajko analyse the various problems relating to the maternity function or distortions of motherhood, as well as use the examples of very distinct physical anomalies associated with the images of pregnancy, childbirth, raising a child and at the same time they research the categories of natural — unnatural — supernatural motherhood.
EN
The paper asks the question, whether nakedness embodies a potential wisdom. It deals with two different approaches to the phenomenon of nakedness: the first one rejecting, the second one appreciating the corporeality. The authors show different meanings the various cultures and civilizations attributed to nakedness, e.g. nakedness as a religious symbol of social subordination or belittling (Mesopotamia, Israel) or of a specific national dominance (Greece). Attention is paid also to the meanings of nakedness in Jainism, where the nakedness is a symbol of non-possessiveness; in Christianity, where the approach to nakedness is ambiguous; in tantrism with its vision of a person with numerous bodies, where the role of nakedness and sexuality is seen in cosmic context. Thus the meaning of nakedness remains multiple, depending on its context and visualization. The authors reject the pornography culture of contemporary society in favour of gymnosophy as the hierophany of the naturalness of nakedness.
ARS
|
2023
|
tom 56
|
nr 1
57-62
EN
The text aims to present the possibilities of a phenomenological interpretation of a work of art, leading to a significant thematization of corporeality, sensual perception, and man’s in the world and nature. Tracing these motifs is based on examples from the work of Maria Bartuszová and Juraj Gavula and on analyses by Jan Patočka and Petr Rezek on sculpture and haptic resonance. The first part of the text concerns the context of creation and the penetrating to the basic form, its constitution, and Jakob von Uexküll’s notion of umwelt comes into play here. The second part concerns the phenomenological analysis of corporeality, touch and movement concerning the formation of the transition from inside to the exterior. Finally, we propose two possibilities into which this thinking can lead, which we present at the end of the text – one is a way to care for oneself, others and the world through a revival of the original relationship to corporeality in handmade art, the other is to trace the possibilities of a haptic resonance of the artwork that reveals the authentic experience of the standing of the world.
EN
Informed by the theories of Antonio Damasio on the emotional mappings of the mind, the present article probes into the Irish writer Colm Tóibín’s The Testament of Mary (2012), originally written for the stage as a solo play and later adapted into a novella, to disclose the resistance narrative of a grieving mother against the official accounts of the Passion of Christ. The ageing Mary of this text, who is granted voice and body, defies the symbolic representations of female suffering and sorrow that have nurtured cultural history and memory for centuries, and engages in a corporeal rendering of her version, which she intends to leave as her Testament to the world. The shaping of her consciousness is thus substantiated on her embodiment as woman and mother, against the iconic disembodied Virgin Mary that has formed the axis of the Catholic cult of Mariology, ultimately contributing to dissolve the classical dichotomies body/mind and matter/spirit, which will be analysed in depth.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2013
|
tom 68
|
nr 5
367 – 375
EN
The paper compares the notion of bodily expression as used in Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of perception with the notion gained from the analysis of The Acting with the Inner Partner. It is a kind of dramatic improvised performance, developed at the Department of Authorial Creativity and Education at the Theatre Faculty of the Performing Arts in Prague. Whereas Merleau-Ponty grasps the experience of non-certainty, so typical for the creative state of mind, by the schema empty intention/fulfilment. The Acting with the Inner Partner is based on the ability of a body’s expression to create its own meaning. Thus the body’s expressivity is liberated from the meaning given in advance, no matter if fulfilled (as it is in the case of imitation) or just empty or intended (as when realizing an idea). The improvisation thus offers a new means how to get to the “very birth” of our experience (Merleau-Ponty’s understanding of the proper goal of phenomenology), and to understand the intrinsic creativity of our own body.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2014
|
tom 69
|
nr 7
581 – 590
EN
It is just there, where he stands clearly against Heidegger that Levinas profoundly approaches that what makes a human being human. Here he is an ever more radical defender of the irreducibility of subjectivity in the era proclaiming the death of subject. Such subjectivity meets the ethical requirement already in the form of sensual, bodily sensitivity or vulnerability, which, instead making human a servant or intermediator of the domination of appearing, being and history, liberates him from that domination. The paper focuses namely on this bodily-affective subjectivity as the core of the humaneness, which resists phenomenology as well as history of being.
12
Content available remote Kognitivní lingvistika, řeč a poezie : (Předběžné poznámky)
75%
EN
The first two parts of this article outline the context of cognitive and cultural linguistics. It discusses, first, its starting point in empirical realism and anthropocentrism and its conception of the universal and the relative. It then briefly explains the basic concepts and the bases of this approach to language and the human mind: the linguistic picture of the world, corporeality, conceptual metaphor, and categorization (particularly in connection with linguistic meaning). The third and most important part of the article demonstrates, on using examples from the poetry of Holan, Skácel, and Topinka, the stimuli that might link cognitive experience with the conception of the poetic text, and thus aid the interpretation of poetry. This is primarily a matter of connotations. According to the chief representatives of cognitive-cultural linguistics, the Polish scholars Ryszard Tokarski and Anna Pajdzinska, poetry provides ample evidence, from the point of view of semantics, for verbal connotations that are otherwise unregistrable. This implies processes of recategorization and relativization of normal functional meanings, which are most blatant, in Pajdzinska's terms, in 'poetic definitions'. Re-evaluation and relativization apply also to normal conceptual schemes. Here, I write about 'linking' and 'container'. The last part of the article concerns the conceptualization of speech, as it may be interpreted on the basis of Miloslav Topinka's collection of verse 'Krysí hnizdo' (Rat Hole).
EN
The subject of the article are the deliberations on the prose of one of contemporary Ukrainian writers — Lubko Deresh. It turns out that the young author has become part of the current of the European prose at the turn of the centuries, deciding to defy many conventions persisting in Ukrainian literature to date. The aim of the author was, as it seems, to shock the reader by using the subjects from the scope of man’s corporeality, absent or rarely appearing in Ukrainian literature. It turns out that Lubko Deresh can, in an extremely interesting way, present a human body in all its natural beauty. Apart from delicate eroticism, the author also focuses on the surroundings of love scenes, imbuing them with colours or creating an appropriate mood. His ideal of the feminine body is a young slim woman with long hair, small breasts and white complexion without a tan. One can see the echoes of adolescent desires of a teenager — after all the author was this age at the time of his literary debut. However, the reading of the following books shows that presenting man’s corporeality Lubko Deresh gives in to pressure of times and follows the most catchy themes in contemporary culture, that is sex and vulgarity, sometimes there also appears cold biologism and obscenities.
EN
This text, meant as a contribution to the subject of Slovak poetry in the 1960s, focuses on two key collections - Zvony (Bells, 1968) by M. Rufus and Milovanie v husej kozi (Making love with goose pimples, 1965) by M. Valek. It tracks down their motifs such as corporeality, heart, bells in relation to emphatic-historical restoration of man's broken relationship with the others, himself, the world - lyricism then functions as either melancholic (M. Rufus), or farcically sarcastic (M. Valek) incomplete or disillusioned evidence of 'the world condition'. Vitally experienced corporeality changes to remains and traces of a human - in the style of a symbolic relic (M. Rufus), a degraded prop (M. Valek). In order to make contrast within synecdochic interpretations, J. Ondrus's and I. Laucik's texts are also given consideration. The interpretation procedure does not conceal. It is always a paraphrase, synecdoche, ellipsis and amplification of the discussed poem, too. However, what is centrally projected is the world evoked by the text. The present text can be perceived as a partial contribution to the 'thematological poetics' (a term coined by P. Zajac), interconnecting the motifs, tropology and a decently viewed historical context.
EN
In spite of the universal moral consensus and a permanent appeal on altruism and solidarity concerning organ donation the number of transplant patients awaiting organs is still considerably greater than the number of organ donors. Most of the current approaches to organ donor ship are based on a dualist model of differentiating between body and spirit. Based on the phenomenological criticism of this dualism and the phenomena of the body and corporeality as conceived in phenomenology are then several fundamental ethical principles which in the author’s view could determine the attitude to human body and its organs.
EN
Veiled and Direct. Remarks About the Feminine Worlds of Maria Pinińska-Bereś and Ewa Partum The proposals of art by the internationally known: Maria Pinińska-Bereś (1931–1999) and Ewa Partum (b. 1945) have been emerging since the 1960s and 1970s as the successive steps driving through the shell of masculine domination in art. Owing to the power and coherence of the liberation endeavours, both artists have worked out their own forms of creativity. Through the individuality of feminine approaches they mani- fested in their statements some sort of model message, and at the same time a uniqueness in the way of using artistic means of expression. For the sculpturess and “performeress” Pinińska-Bereś entangled in the mul- ti-level dualism of the patriarchal domination and neo-avant-guarde free- dom, the method depended on showing psychoanalytically filtered depths through the veiled object allusions. For the relatively early emancipated and direct in her strong performances conceptual artist, Ewa Partum, the fusion of corporal presence with critical ideas was, and still is, important.
EN
This study explores the lived experience of democratic civic education for middle school students. Grounded in the tradition of hermeneutic phenomenology as guided by Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (1960/2003), Casey (1993), and Levinas (1961/2004), among others, the framework for conducting action-sensitive research, as described by van Manen (2003), guides this inquiry as I endeavour to uncover what it means for students to embody civic education. Twenty-nine students are taped engaging in discussions, debates, simulations, and other civic education. Twelve students self-select to engage in reflective writing and conversations about their experiences. The existential theme of lived body emerges from this inquiry. The importance of embodying one’s learning as well as connecting physically and socially to one’s society is apparent. The students’ learning through their corporeal experience serves to create the civil body politic of the classroom and inform their behaviour outside of the classroom. Insights from this study may inform curriculum theorists and developers, policy-makers, and classroom teachers. Recommendations are made to transform the social studies for students to capitalize on their bodily experiences within the classroom so that they may grow in their role as a citizen. Students may then embody the ideals essential in civic education and democratic societies.
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