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EN
The formation of neosemanticisms has its origin in the expressiveness of communication and is caused by the need for naming new objects and phenomena, language fashion or results from contemporary linguistic tendencies such as internationalization or colloquialization of a language. The phenomenon of neosemantization (extending the meaning of words or taking on a new meaning by a lexeme) is a very interesting process. In Polish-Bulgarian confrontative linguistics there is a lack of works describing the process of neosemantization for both languages. The text below is to introduce the reader to essential facts resulting from the initial confrontation of the Polish and Bulgarian language.
EN
The use of masculine gender, which is a characteristic system phenomenon for all three languages under discussion – Slovak, Polish and Bulgarian – is firmly anchored in the language awareness of its carriers. Requests calling for revision of this language standard that are vigorously raised especially in the Polish language environment are not, with some exceptions, generally accepted. Despite the fact that all three languages dispose of similar mechanisms of word formation and multiple morphological means to form feminine names next to their masculine counterparts, Polish and to a lesser extent Bulgarian apply a category of inflection specifically. Unlike Slovak language, a feminine correlate can be derived automatically from nearly each living noun of masculine gender, masculinization – i.e. using masculine nouns in a deputizing function to mark women – is characteristic for Polish and Bulgarian languages. Generally it can be said for both languages that on one hand there are word formation possibilities that language system has to offer, as well as democratization of language and creation potential, on the other hand there is a well-established linguistic tradition and an absence of categorical rules determining gender in naming of professions, functions, titles and various activities depending on the person’s gender. These trends cause tension in the formation or non-formation of feminine forms and their use in both languages, as well as in their lexicographic processing, where searching for an adequate solution is necessary.
3
Content available The need for an electronic multilingual dictionary
51%
EN
The paper analyses the issue of providing adequate equivalents in multilingual dictionaries. If equivalents are adequate, it means that: (1) the scope of meaning of one item is identical to its equivalent (cf. drive: drive a nail vs. drive a car); and (2) the collocations of the equivalents overlap. Two significant problems arise when searching for adequate equivalents: the lack of equivalents whose meanings are identical (narrower/wider meanings, partial overlap of meanings, more than equally good equivalent), and equivalents with homographs in a given language. Because such issues are difficult to resolve in a printed dictionary, we put forward some methods of addressing the problems in an electronic dictionary. The paper offers an example entry from such a dictionary, which presents a suggestion of a layout. We also took into consideration the potential problems which may appear if the entry is presented in this manner: first, one must set a limit for the description (a defined number of lexical units); second, one must avoid circularity, but at the same time also strive for an exhaustive description. Electronic dictionaries offer greater possibilities of presenting modern vocabulary and adding new classifiers (e.g. a classifier of politeness).
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