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EN
Background: The previous studies formed the role of oxidants and proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of acute psychological stress-related cardiac damage leading to mortality and other complications. The aim of the study is to examine the protective effect of rutin against stress-induced cardiac damage. In the literature, no studies have been found analyzing the effects of rutin in acute stress related oxidative damage induced by immobilization method in rats.Material and Methods: Rutin was administered orally to rutin + stress applied (RSG) group albino rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg. For healthy control (HG) and stress applied to control (SAG) groups, distilled water as a solvent was orally administered at the same volume (0.5 ml). One hour after rutin and distilled water applications, all animals except for HG brought into supine position and their legs and arms were ligated and kept in the same position for 24 hours.Results: Oxidant, cytokine and cardiac biomarker levels in blood serum and heart tissues of SAG animals were found to be significantly higher and total glutathione was lower than RSG and HG groups. Histopathologically dilated conjugated blood vessels and myocardial destruction, hemorrhage, edema, and polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration were observed in the SAG heart tissues. On the other hand, the histological heart tissue results of the RSG group was found to be similar compare to healthy tissue except for the slightly dilated conjugated blood vessel. Conclusion: These results indicate that the rutin may be useful in the treatment of stress-related oxidative cardiac damage
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Content available Temperament, stress, and atrial fibrillation
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EN
In some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the causative agent of attack is stress (AF associated with adrenergic activity). In others, AF usually begins during relax or sleep (AF associated with vagal nerve dominance). This study aimed to investigate the individual factors associated with the adrenergic or vagal type of AF. This study included 138 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Sixty-eight patients reported that AF was frequently triggered by stress (sympathetic-type AF) and 70 patients reported that AF usually began during relaxation or sleep (vagal-type AF). Gender, age, ejection fraction, and temperament were compared across the two groups. Temperament was evaluated using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory. The groups differed only in temperament. Patients with sympathetic-type AF had a higher score for emotional reactivity (p = 0.002) and perseverance (p = 0.002) temperament traits and a lower score for endurance (p = 0.003) than patients with vagal-type AF and than the average in population.
EN
The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the influence on fatigue behavior of the welded aluminum alloy AlMgSi07. For the experimental measurement of fatigue of these welds, it is needed to analyse all the changes, which will occur in the weld material in comparison with the basic material. The modern computer simulation and the experimental verification are strong tools for achievement of the required results, for instance a change of the structure, residual stress, a range of the heat affected zone, a deformation of the workpiece etc.
EN
This article deals with determining of fatigue lifetime of structural materials during by multiaxial cyclic loading. The theoretical part deals with the fatigue and with the criterions for evaluation of multiaxial fatigue lifetime. The experimental part deals with modeling of combined bending - torsion loading and determining the number of cycles to fracture in region low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue and also during of loading with the sinusoidal wave form under in phase Φ = 0° and out phase Φ = 90°.
EN
The aim of the article is to present a very important phenomenon affecting human integrity and homeostasis that is Threat Prediction Process. This process can be defined as “experiencing apprehension concerning results of potential/ actual dangers,” (Mamcarz, 2015) oscillating in terminological area of anxiety, fear, stress, restlessness. Moreover, it highlights a cognitive process distinctive for listed phenomenon’s. The process accompanied with technological and organization changes increases number of health problems affecting many populations. Hard work conditions; changing life style; or many social and political threats have influence on people’s quality of life that are even greater and more dangerous than physical and psychological factors, which, in turn, have much more consequences for human normal functioning. The present article is based on chosen case studies of a qualitative analysis of threat prediction process
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2016
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tom 16(2)
143-156
EN
The intensity of stress in life is treated as the main factor differentiating mental wellbeing. The aim of the paper is to analyse opinions and behaviours concerning the choice of place and form of holiday trips in the context of stress reduction. The research was conducted in 2016 among 100 working adults. The method applied was the one of a diagnostic survey, with an authorial questionnaire. The results show that the desire of health improvement and a reduction of the negative influence of tension both have a significant influence on the choice of holiday destination. Over half of the respondents experience stress several times a week, or even every day. The main reason for nervous tension, pointed out by both men and women, is their work. The respondents confirmed experiencing numerous somatic symptoms of stress. The majority of the interlocutors perceive positive influence of a vacation on their mental condition. Expanding tourism offers towards improvement of the mental dimension of health may constitute an important element in promotion of pro-health lifestyle.
EN
Presented article includes three psychological phenomena: emotions, stress and interpersonal differences. The article reveals relationships among these phenomena in the context of sex differences. It was hypothetically assumed that there are statistically important differences between women and men concerning the choice of stress coping strategy and that these differences could be caused by different emotions. The results of statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis and showed that women cope with stress by seeking social support, taking responsibility and escape-avoidance more often than men. Men cope with stress by self-control and distancing more often than women. Different structure of dominant emotions can be the main cause of differences between women and men in their choice of coping strategy. Women experienced high level of anxiety, neuroticism, high emotional reactivity and high level of situational control. Men experienced high level of psychoticism, emotional resistance and high level of emotional expression control. Two types of emotionality were based on separated differences: famine – defined as emotional commitment and masculine – defined as emotional distance.
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A sense of purpose in life is inextricably linked with a firm conviction of exercising control over it, and having one’s priorities set straight. Health in turn, is affected by stress, by salutogenetic factors, as presented by A. Antonovsky. Disturbances of sense of purpose in life result in psychosomatic disorders. Hypothesis: there is a relevant statistical correlation between the level of sense of purpose in life and noopsychosomatic disorders. Methods: 1) Crumbaugh-Maholick Purpose-in-Life Test, 2) K. Mausch Questionnaire of Psychosomatic Ailments. Test group: 683 pedagogy students from the University of Szczecin. There is a relevant statistical correlation between the level of sense of purpose in life and psychosomatic disorders. The research results require comparison with other post-soviet countries, as well as democratic ones.
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Content available remote Stress at the initial stage of growth for Lennard-Jones films
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EN
Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the influence of a relative size of adsorbed and substrate atoms on the stress of growing films. Atoms in the system interact via the Lennard-Jones potential. The simulations were performed at a fixed value of systems temperature. The relative size of deposited atoms was changed in the range from 0.7 to 1.2, relatively to the size of substrate atoms. Proposed modeling allows to explain the behaviour of mean biaxial stress for systems with different sizes of adsorbed atoms and a substrate. For considered systems, significant changes in mean biaxial stress have only first three monolayers.
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Content available remote Stress modification in gold metal thin films during thermal annealing
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EN
Stress evolution during deposition of 50 nm Au thin films by thermal evaporation in a UHV system and then stress modification during thermal vacuum annealing have been performed. For stress measurement a substrate curvature approach has been applied. The changes in stress versus temperature linked to a modification of microstructure has been interpreted. To obtain any information about structural changes in the film X-ray diffraction measurements has been performed. We can conclude from the measurements that during the first cycle some irreversible structural modifications occur in a metal film.
EN
Differentiation of self refers to the ability to modulate affect, maintain a clear sense of self, and balance intimacy and autonomy in significant relationships. The author tested whether differentiation mediated the relationship between marital satisfaction and stress perceived by women. The sample consisted of 220 married women. Marital satisfaction was found to be inversely correlated with perceived stress. Greater marital satisfaction also coincided with better differentiation of self (less emotional reactivity, greater I position, less emotional cutoff and fusion with others), while lower level of differentiation was significantly associated with higher feeling of stress. Differentiation of self also mediated the linkage between marital satisfaction and stress perceived by women. The results support searching hypothesis.
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Content available remote Structural Materials Used for Steam Pipelines in Power Industry
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EN
The study presents some strength parameters of structural materials, including steel grades 13HMF, P91 and P92, currently used in professional power engineering to produce pipelines, boiler super-heaters, steam tanks, steam pressure tanks and pipelines designed to operate at the temperature range up to 650o C. The author presented results of material stress tests performed by him for pipelines in as-delivered state as well as after 40 000 hours of operation. The tests were made using Mathar strain gauge method. Hardness test results for areas subjected to strain gauge tests and structural changes of tested samples are also presented. Stress test results indicate stress increase for operated material as well as for grain size growth compared to as-delivered material. It is caused by operating load (both thermal and mechanical) of the pipeline material.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono zależność współczynnika intensywności naprężeń w ostrym wierzchołku otworu w kształcie rombu od kąta wierzchołkowego. Rozważono dwa przypadki obciążenia - jedno- i dwukierunkowe rozciąganie płaszczyzny. Wykorzystując metodę osobliwych równań całkowych otrzymano rozwiązanie dla rozciąganej płaszczyzny sprężystej osłabionej rombowym otworem o wierzchołkach zaokrąglonych łukiem o małym promieniu krzywizny. Przejście graniczne w rozwiązaniu numerycznym umożliwiło uzyskanie wartości współczynników intensywności naprężeń w odpowiednich ostrych narożach dla dowolnych kątów rozwarcia wierzchołka otworu.
EN
The unified approach to solve problems of stress concentration around sharp and rounded diamond shaped hole in elastic plane based on singular integral equation method was proposed. At first, the problem was solved for an elastic domain with diamond hole with rounded vertex of large curvature. The method based on passage to the limit (when curvature radius tends to zero), was used to obtain stress intensity factor at the vertex of sharp diamond hole in a plane under tension. The numerical results of stress intensity factors for a diamond hole of arbitrary vertex angle were discussed.
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Content available remote Choroby cywilizacyjne XXI wieku
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EN
Lifestyle diseases are diseases of inherent negative effects of living in a highly developed civilization, and the twenty‑first century is full of negative effects of globalization and urbanization. Environmental pollution, excessive pace of life, chronic fatigue and constant stress have led to many psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, phobias), cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and coronary heart disease, cancer, allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity and diabetes, which are all referred to collectively as the twenty‑first century civilization diseases. Also the use of alcohol, drugs, stimulant drugs or tranquilizers as a means of escape from problems leads to further addictions. To avoid all these conditions one should lead a healthy, active lifestyle while increasing the quality of life for future generations.
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Content available remote I dalej nie wiemy, co to jest stres?
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EN
The notion of stress was introduced to science by Hans Selye. In medical nomenclature stress is a homeostasis disorder due to physical or psychological factors. These factors can cause a formation of different functional, morphological and psychological changes. Universally, stress is recognized as a harmful phenomenon. Undesirable conditions bring on strong or chronic stress. Many researchers recognize stress as a basic development factor. The notion of stress today is still inexplicable ad finem.
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Introduction. Stress is a complex and ubiquitous phenomenon. According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most common problems of the 21st century. It is no surprise that the majority of people associate stress with something entirely negative. However, there is no life without stress and a certain amount of stress in life is necessary. Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of stress among students of the Medical University from the faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry and Public Health, and evaluate its influence on physiological changes and behavior, and present the ways of coping with it. Material and methods. The study comprised 240 students from the faculties mentioned above. Stress was measured by means of a questionnaire consisting of 14 fully anonymous questions which concerned factors causing stress, ways of reacting to it and methods of coping with it. Results. It was found out that stress as an intense emotional reaction to a number of stimuli triggers some physiological and psychological adaptation responses among students. Conclusions. The findings of this research suggest that pharmacy students are the most exposed to high levels of stress. Oral examination is considered to be the most stressful form of testing students’ knowledge. According to survey respondents, the most common symptoms of stress include abdominal pain palpitations, sleep disorders, excessive sweating, hand shaking. The majority of respondents listed the following activities to beat stress: sports, sleeping or listening to music, as most effective in reducing stress. Some of the respondents also turned to substances, such as tobacco or alcohol. The respondents admitted that they have also used drugs
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Content available remote Marital satisfaction, differentiation of self and stress perceived by women
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EN
Differentiation of self refers to the ability to modulate affect, maintain a clear sense of self, and balance intimacy and autonomy in significant relationships. The author tested whether differentiation mediated the relationship between marital satisfaction and stress perceived by women. The sample consisted of 220 married women. Marital satisfaction was found to be inversely correlated with perceived stress. Greater marital satisfaction also coincided with better differentiation of self (less emotional reactivity, greater I position, less emotional cutoff and fusion with others), while lower level of differentiation was significantly associated with higher feeling of stress. Differentiation of self also mediated the linkage between marital satisfaction and stress perceived by women. The results support searching hypothesis.
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