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Content available remote Význam humoru v kontextu úvah Louise Cazamiana
The study interprets and develops Louis Cazamian’s theory of humor. It presents the outlines of the theory, which was created in connection with Bergson’s general theory of the comic and his remarks on humor. In the process of zeroing in on Cazamian’s conception of the mechanism of humor as a transposition of man’s natural reaction to reality into the form of an invented response, the study raises the question of the im‑ portance of humor in life. This topic is approached by depicting the evolution of Caza‑ mian’s views on the possibility of establishing a “philosophy” of humor, highlighting a gradually emerging belief in the power of humor to free man from a naive view of reality. The study shows that Cazamian’s thinking as regards the philosophy of humor also contains an inadequately expressed tendency to conceive of humor as a way of criticizing humanity’s rigid approach to reality. The study attempts to highlight and develop this tendency with references to Bergson’s emphasis on the critical role of laughter and Cazamian’s reflections on the complex scope of the suggestive power of humor.
Studie interpretuje a rozvíjí teorii humoru Louise Cazamiana. Ukazuje obrysy této teorie vytvořené v návaznosti na Bergsonovu obecnou teorii komična a na Bergsono‑ vy poznámky o humoru. V souvislosti s přiblížením Cazamianova pojetí mechanismu humoru jako transpozice přirozené reakce člověka na skutečnost do podoby vynale‑ zené responze si studie pokládá otázku po významu humoru v životě. K tomu tématu se přibližuje prostřednictvím zachycení vývoje Cazamianových názorů na možnost stanovení „filosofie“ humoru, přičemž vyzdvihuje jeho postupně se vynořující pře‑ svědčení o síle humoru osvobozovat člověka od naivního pohledu na skutečnost. Stu‑ die ukazuje, že Cazamianovo uvažování o filosofii humoru obsahuje i nedostatečně vyjádřenou tendenci pojmout humor jako nástroj kritiky strnulého přístupu člověka ke skutečnosti. Tuto tendenci se za pomoci poukazů na Bergsonovo zdůraznění kri‑ tické role smíchu a na Cazamianovy reflexe složité působnosti sugestivní síly humoru pokouší studie vyzdvihnout a rozvinout.
In der vorliegenden Studie wird die Humortheorie Louis Cazamians interpretiert und entwickelt. Dabei werden die in Anknüpfung an Bergsons allgemeine Theorie des Ko‑ mischen und an Bergsons Anmerkungen zum Humor entstandenen Umrisse dieser Theorie aufgezeigt. Im Zusammenhang mit der Annäherung an Cazamians Auffas‑ sung zum Mechanismus des Humors als Transposition der natürlichen Reaktion des Menschen auf die Wirklichkeit in die Form einer erfundenen Antwort wird in der Studie die Frage nach der Bedeutung von Humor im Leben gestellt. Die Annäherung an dieses Thema erfolgt vermittels der Verfolgung der Entwicklung von Cazamians Ansichten zur Möglichkeit der Bestimmung einer „Philosophie“ des Humors, wobei Cazamians allmählich zutage tretende Überzeugung von der Kraft des Humors zur Befreiung des Menschen von dessen naiver Sicht auf die Wirklichkeit betont wird. Die Studie zeigt, dass Cazamians Gedanken zur Philosophie des Humors auch eine un‑ zureichend ausgedrückte Tendenz enthält, Humor als Instrument der Kritik am er‑ starrten Zugang des Menschen zur Wirklichkeit aufzufassen. In der Studie wird dabei versucht, diese Tendenz mithilfe von Verweisen auf Bergsons Betonung der kritischen Rolle des Lachens und auf Cazamians Reflexion der komplexen Wirkweise der Sugge‑ stivkräfte des Humors zu betonen und weiterzuentwickeln.
It seems most likely that Richard Messer (born in 1881 in Pančevo, died in 1962 in Prague) came to Budapest in 1900; in any case, at the end of that year he had his surname officially changed to Meszlény. This is how he subsequently signed his — apparently somewhat sporadic — contributions to Budapest-based Hungarian-language journals and newspapers: the prose piece “Egy boldog pár” (Happy Couple) was published in the review Otthon (Home, 1901); a series of critical sketches were printed in the journal A Színház (Theatre, 1904); a couple of texts appeared in the review Művészet (Art, 1905, 1908) and since 1908 he also wrote occasional pieces for the daily Pester Lloyd. After all, as “Meszlény” he graduated in philological studies from the University of Budapest (continuing in Grenoble, Heidelberg and Cluj-Napoca) and it is also how he signed his final, doctoral thesis about Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg (Gerstenberg költészete. Irodalomtörténeti tanulmány, 1908). The present study traces precisely these roots of Messerʼs philological and artistic-critical habit.
Content available Milan Kundera: La fête de l’insignifiance
The book-review of Milan Kundera’s last novel of, The Festival of Insignificance (French version 2014, English 2015) describes at first its plot and characters, further it analyses its structure and its types of narration, it endeavors to find its different possible meanings and values (of its form and contents, plot). In the end it attempts to interpret the total sense of its ambiguous subject of insignificance.
Content available Filozofia – kritika – súčasná spoločnosť
Статья представляет собой критический анализ динамических и фундаментальных антиномий современной общественной реальности. Опорными пунктами философской критики в нашей статье являются взгляды И. Канта, Ю. Хабермаса и М. Хоркхаймера, содержащие основные нормы оценки современного общества. В центре исследования автора находится анализ роковых перемен в Восточной Европе после падения Берлинской стены, которые повлияли на положение бывшей Чехословакии и ее приемных государств – Чешской и Словацкой Республик.
The paper offers a critical analysis of dynamic and fundamental antinomies of today’s social reality. The main points of philosophical criticism are represented by the ideas of I. Kant, J. Habermas and M. Horkheimer including basic norms of examining the contemporary society. The author focuses on examination of significant changes in Eastern Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall, especially on the circumstances of the former Czechoslovakia and later the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
This study seeks an answer to the question when and how the Czech romantic K. H. Mácha (1810–1836) started to be seen as a “modern” poet who could inspire authors writing decades after his death. The study proves that the image of “modern” Mácha as the first Czech poet to achieve the autonomy of art already existed between 1860 and 1890, and that Mácha’s artistic reputation grew constantly throughout the second half of the 19th century. This argument is based on a vast amount of evidence, mostly taken from literary journalism and criticism between 1858 and 1910 (the latter year seeing the centenary of Mácha’s birth).
This study deals with the practice of art criticism in the Politik, a daily German-language periodical of the National Party (Národní strana, also known as the staročeši, or ‘Old Czech Party’) whose readership included both (ethnic) Czechs and Germans of the bourgeois middle-class during the 1870s. Based on the example of Viktor Guth’s regular reporting on Czech and German theatrical presentations in Prague, the study examines the position of the Politik straddling the boundary between these two language cultures. In particular, it aims to better understand intercultural crossover as carried out within the editorial practices of the periodical vis-à-vis the cultural sector, and through communication with the model reader, giving vocal support, at the political level, to the Czech national program. Through an analysis of an 1873 article by Emanuel Bozděch, in which the critic offers his evaluation of the work of Franz Grillparzer (set in the context of Grillparzer’s reception in the Czech lands during the 19th century), the study also considers the possibilities presented by the Politik for bringing cultural impulses into the Czech-speaking environment, as well as the role it played in the field of literary criticism vis-à-vis that of autonomous Czech artistic production.
This article deals with the beginnings of the magazines Tvar (Form) and Obrys -Kmen (Contours-Stem), which were founded on the vestiges of defunct periodicals Kmen and Obrys. What they present, for the most part, are editorial statements and positions, as well as metacriticism and profiles on various publications from the diverse medium of literary journals in the context of the newly democratized literary sphere of the 1990s. The aim of this article is to show, using the examples of Tvar and Obrys- -Kmen, how the prominent position and status of official literary criticism and its representatives changed after 1989, as they were cast to the (apparent) periphery of the field.
The development of a professional network, as well as long-standing disputes, among the most prominent representatives of Czech modernism at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries — F. X. Šalda on the one hand, and Arnošt Procházka and the Moderní revue (especially Jiří Karásek) on the other — can be traced through several stages. First, 1893–1895, a period of mutual curiosity and emerging factions, from the earliest meeting up to the formal manifestation of Česká moderna, which was preceded by the establishment of the Moderní revue as first independent literary platform of the 1890s. Second, 1895–1900, a period in which various trends converged in the connection of art to life and society, and in a confrontation with other emerging, alternative concepts of modernism, namely Synthetism. Third, 1900–1910, a period that looks back, from the strata of generational polemics, culminating in the controversy surrounding Šalda’s pseudonyms, to the accusation of Karásek in what has come to be known as the anonymous letters affair. Fourth, 1910–1925, when each side declared hostility towards, or simply ignored, the other’s role in Czech modernism, from the conclusion of the anonymous letters affair to Procházka’s death. This study focuses in particular on the two initial periods, on the roots of the polemic, and on key moments in the 1890s: that is, on the onset and gradual differentiation of modernist literary creation and criticism in all its forms, on the transformations and extremes of the polemic as the example of a genre whose essence is dialogue and misunderstanding in equal parts. While the polemic is often rife with personal attacks, it also tends to crystallize in a mirror that reveals the collisions and transformations of Czech modern aesthetic thinking, and that illuminates connections and transitions in the field of literary and cultural production.
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