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EN
Background: The purpose of this work was to present a model which shows the efficiency of the actions in the game of soccer, based on observations of 7 final tournament matches during the European Championships in 2008. The successful teams were analyzed from the quarterfinals to the final match. Activity, effectiveness and reliability, during both offensive and defensive actions, were subject to this examination.Material/Methods: The material consisted of the audio-visual records gathered from 7 matches which had been played in the final tournament in the 2008 European Championships. The gathered data was put on the special observation sheet in accordance with the Panfil's design.Results: It has been ascertained that the most effective actions are those of possessing the ball and the actions of gaining the field, while the rate of scoring goals is similar to that which had been observed during finals in other top soccer tournaments. Additionally, in the defensive actions the best players manifest higher reliability in co-operation than in individual actions.Conclusions: In the top-level competitions, group/team actions prevailed over individual ones. The examined players manifested nearly the same efficiency in scoring like those who took part in the finals of the World and continental championships. The players regarded as champions made use of various individual actions against their opponents with a ball, depending on the implemented game tasks.The models which illustrate the efficiency of actions in soccer, at the top-level competition should be used for creating ideal models which will design the game of players of lower sport competence.
EN
The base of efficient functioning of every organization, including a unit of territorial self-government, is among others, possession of suitable stock of information. The units of observation subsystem (including services of public statistics) notice state and changes happening in the scale of territorial unit registering them in different forms. As an effect of these observations, a set of information about state of unit and its individual elements is formed. It helps in taking a decision by self-government authorities. The meaning of information in decision processes of organs of territorial self-government grows distinctly. It also becomes a kind of challenge for public statistics.
EN
An article covers the specifics of professional training of future geographers for field researches in period of the XIX – beginning of the XX century. It is detected that this period is characterized by rapid development of geographical science and education, followed by foundation of several higher educational institutions, opening of geographical departments and further improvement of field researches with the participation of students. The place of geographical discipline in education plans of the main high schools in the country is defined. The specifics of organization of practice related to nature observation is considered. It is found out that during the XIX – beginning of the XX century the scientific work of students have been implemented by performing independent exploratory researches, participation in joint scientific expeditions with teachers and in scientific sections. It is established that the increase of natural scientists’ activity since the mid-50s of the XIX century was due primarily to the inclusion of natural sciences in the program cycle. And at the end of the XIX century teaching geography to students was already systematic. The negative trends in geography teaching related to usage of lectures mainly, which are not very deep and instructive, and missing interaction between knowledge and practice are emphasized. It is detected that the development of geographical disciplines are inseparably linked to the activities of scientific and nature-study organizations of that period. An important part in nature research of different regions played Russian Geographical Society which employees in fact have founded regional statistical-geographical and local researches, set up criteria of its program support. It is defined that foundation of scientific societies has become one of the special organization form of scientific researches, and namely society of naturalists. This has caused the development and formation of geography and nature study. It is determined that teaching stuff started actively involving and encouraging students in research activities. The viewpoints of natural scientists are analyzed, namely about study status, the importance of foundation of geographical departments, organization and involvement of field researches into education plans of high schools. It is found out that active development of higher school in the preparation of subject teachers had a positive impact on the process of theoretical justification and methodological improvement of teaching of natural sciences, as well as organizing and conducting field researches.
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Content available remote Observation of String-Rewriting Systems
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EN
Models of computation in theoretical computer science very frequently consist of a device performing some type of process, like a Turing machine and its computation or a grammar and its derivation. After the process halts, only some final output is regarded as the result. In adding an observer to such a device, one can obtain a protocol of the entire process and then use this as the result of the computation. In several recent articles this approach has proved to often exceed greatly the power of the observed system. Here we apply this architecture to string-rewriting systems. They receive a string as input, and a combination of observer and decider then determines whether this string is accepted. This decision is based only on the rewriting process performed. First we determine the power of painter, context-free, and inverse context-free rewriting systems in terms of McNaughton languages. Then these are investigated as components of rewriting/observer systems, and we obtain characterizations of the classes of context-sensitive and recursively enumerable languages. Finally we investigate some limitations, i.e. characterize some systems, where observation does not increase power.
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Content available Definicje przedmiotu teoretycznego
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EN
The paper presents three main definitions of theoretical entity: basic definition, definition from unobservability, and ontological definition. These are the definitions of theoretical entity that are most popular and widely accepted by philosophers of science (both realists and antirealists). All these definitions contain significant defects, which lead to unacceptable conclusions. The author also offers an alternative definition from explanation, which avoids the defects of previous definitions. The aim of the paper is to prove that proper definition of theoretical entity is necessary in debates over scientific realism. To make a legitimate claim about the existence of theoretical entities, one should know what theoretical entity really is.
EN
The subject of interest in the article is the educators’ activity in the nursery in the area of writing about events in the field of practice, especially about the relations of a young child and the educator, and taking a reflection on what has been written. Writing is conducive to reflecting on what is observed, reading what is written, conversation of educators with each other, in order to analyze the relationship of an adult and a child.
EN
It was given the problem statement for observation control of technological processes with parallel technological stages and analytical analyses. Control of observations was reduced to non linear optimal problem. There were created algorithms of problem solution by computer. Results received are useful to minimize the functional depending on expenses of observation.
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Content available remote Uncertainties in microseismic event location analysis
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EN
Microseismic monitoring is the observation technique of small earthquakes, called microseismic events, which occur in the ground as a result of human activities or industrial processes such as hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is the one of the primary technologies for improving well productivity. The main purpose of hydraulic fracturing is to create an effective fracture system in the rock. During this process, fracturing fluids, which contain proppant, grains or sands, are pumped into a formation to hold the cracks open and keep oil and gas flow (Akram 2014). Microseismicity which occurs during the hydraulic fracturing process can be detected by sensitive sensors placed in a monitoring well nearby the treatment well (Pereira & Jones 2010). The recording of microseismic events is very important. Identifying microseismicity distribution in hydraulic fracture treatments is crucial for deducing how the reservoir rocks are responding to the production activity and can be useful for evaluating the stimulation effectiveness in unconventional reservoirs for example by constraining a geomechanical model of fractured formation (Eisner et al. 2009). This is the reason why the correct location of microseismic events is a crucial factor in stimulation of unconventional reservoirs. One of the most important aspects in microseismic event location analysis is to investigate the uncertainties in these events location. In this study, the author presents the application of different downhole array to investigate uncertainties in the estimated location of microseismic events. To achieve this goal, a 3D layered velocity model was used and several different receiver arrays were tested. All calculations were made in GeoTomo MiVuTM Microseismic Processing System. The author showed how the events location uncertainties changed with the location of the receiver array in a monitoring well. This kind of analysis is very important prior to hydraulic fracturing process. It allows to confirm what kind of geometry should be used in a specified region to optimize the production process and to avoid errors caused by the ambiguity in microseismic data interpretation.
EN
The article is an important starting point for reflecting upon the emergence and development of fundamental trust through the first, primary relationship between the newborn and the parent. The birth of the first child signifies establishment of a family system, in which the concepts and mechanisms that Relational Family Therapy is built upon, are reflected on a systemic, interpersonal and intrapsychic level. Relational Family Therapy can find a way to resolve painful psychical contents and bring about a relief of the family system. The starting point for the study of the family described in this paper is the method of observing newborn behavior, the Newborn Behavioral Observations System (hereinafter NBO) with elements of Relational Family Therapy, which significantly helps to build a confident parental role and establishes a closer relationship between parents and children, thus forming the foundation for all further relationships.
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Content available remote Regional detection and reconstruction of unknown internal or boundary sources
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EN
The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of regional detection, to characterize internal or boundary regionally detectable sources and regionally spy sensors, and to establish a relationship between these sensors and regionally strategic sensors. It is shown how to reconstruct a regionally detectable internal or a boundary source from a given output, with an extension to the case when the output is affected by an observation error. Numerical results are given in the case of a diffusion system.
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EN
Ice thickness is one of the most critical physical indicators in the ice science and engineering. It is therefore very necessary to develop in-situ automatic observation technologies of ice thickness. This paper proposes the principle of three new technologies of in-situ automatic observations of sea ice thickness and provides the findings of laboratory applications. The results show that the in-situ observation accuracy of the monitor apparatus based on the Magnetostrictive Delay Line (MDL) principle can reach š2 mm, which has solved the "bottleneck" problem of restricting the fine development of a sea ice thermodynamic model, and the resistance accuracy of monitor apparatus with temperature gradient can reach the centimeter level and research the ice and snow substance balance by automatically measuring the glacier surface ice and snow change. The measurement accuracy of the capacitive sensor for ice thickness can also reach š4 mm and the capacitive sensor is of the potential for automatic monitoring the water level under the ice and the ice formation and development process in water. Such three new technologies can meet different needs of fixed-point ice thickness observation and realize the simultaneous measurement in order to accurately judge the ice thickness.
EN
Introduction: Fibroadenomas are one of the most common benign tumors of the breast in the adolescent females accounting for about 2/3rd of all the breast lumps and more than half of all the biopsied breast lesions. They come into being due to overgrowth of glandular tissue under the influence of hormonal changes that the girls undergo at the time of puberty. Due to the wide prevalence of fibroadenomas and the psychosocial morbidity associated with the finding of a breast mass, it is imperative for physicians treating adolescent patients to be thoroughly familiar and updated with this disease. Aim: The article aims at providing a brief review of the classification, presentation, diagnosis, and update on the management of breast fibroadenomas on the basis of recent literature.
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Content available remote The Efficiency Model of Goalkeeper's Actions in Soccer
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EN
Background: The purpose of this paper was to present cognitive models illustrating efficiency of the goalkeeper's actions in soccer based on observation of play in selected matches of the Euro 2008 finals.Material/Methods: The observation method was used in the study. The play of both goalkeepers was analysed in 7 soccer matches in a cup phase of the European Championships which took place in Portugal in 2008. The data was recorded on the authors' observation forms. Activity, effectiveness and reliability during both offensive and defensive actions were subject to this examination.Results: It was revealed that most actions of the goalkeeper are aimed at taking control of the field of play or keeping possession of the ball; creating goal scoring opportunity represents only a small percentage of offensive actions. Defensive actions are generally performed individually and the highest reliability is reported while catching the ball.Conclusions: Efficiency models of goalkeepers' actions should be used to create models of play for players representing a lower level of sports competence in order to improve the effectiveness of their game play. One should continue further study to improve a research tool so as to evaluate other, important from the point of view of the game's objectives, actions definitely dependent on team mates' behavior.
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88%
EN
Background: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the efficiency of action-effective football players in one against one situations (1×1).Material/Methods: The game of winning teams' players was observed in four matches and two semi-final meetings of the European Championships tournament in 2004 and 2008. Visual recording was monitored using a freeze-frame function and data about the players' game were recorded on observation sheet by Szwarc. The activity, effectiveness and reliability of individual offensive and defensive actions were estimated.Results: It was found that on average players of the best teams in Europe participated in 216 1×1 battles (from 184 to 273) in one game, with an average reliability of 52%.Conclusions: Furthermore, it was proved that players-champions engaged equally often and with the same effectiveness in both individual defensive measures and offensive actions.
EN
We consider in this work a class of finite dimensional time-varying linear disturbed systems. The main objective of this work is to studied the optimal control which ensures the remediability of a disturbance of time-varying disturbed systems. The remediability concept consist to find a convenient control which bringing back the corresponding observation of disturbed system to the normal one at the final time. We give firstly some characterisations of compensation and in second party we find a control which annul the output of the system and we show also that the Hilbert Uniqueness Method can be used to solve the optimal control which ensure the remediability. A general approach was given to minimize the linear quadratic problem. Examples and numerical simulations are given.
EN
The author reflects upon her experience of exploratory fieldwork conducted by an interdisciplinary group during the Urban Summer School. The research was conducted within an environment built according to the idea of "Open Form", introduced by architect Oskar Hansen. Together with his wife Zofia, he designed a few neighborhoods around Poland, one of which – the Juliusz Słowacki housing estate in Lublin – is used as a case study for this paper. The article follows the process of collaborative development of research design and discusses a number of methods (focused ethnography, interviews, mental mapping, observation, participatory photography) applied to the study of materiality and social functioning of balconies as "threshold spaces" and their domestication. The author also outlines her positions in relation to both the local people with whom she has conducted interviews about their homes and the participants of her group.
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Content available Ćwiczenia w obserwacji
75%
PL
Artykuł stanowi analizę procesu przygotowania i realizacji wymaganych w cyklach szkolenia wojsk lądowych, ćwiczeń w obserwacji. Dokonano charakterystyki podstawowych zagadnień szkoleniowych kształtujących elementarne umiejętności żołnierzy, stanowiących podstawę organizowania i prowadzenia przez dowódcę pododdziału ćwiczeń w obserwacji w ramach zajęć ze szkolenia ogniowego. Zaproponowano również przykłady ćwiczeń, uwzględniając warunki i ich prowadzenie i oceny.
EN
This article provides an analysis of the process of the preparation and implementation of exercises in observation that are required for the training cycles in the Land Forces. The author describes basic training issues, developing elementary skills required from soldiers and constituting the basis for organizing and conducting by a subunit commander exercises in observation as part of training with firearms. The author also provides sample exercises with respect to the conditions under which they will be conducted and evaluated.
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