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The article shows the effect of economic and political liberalization processes in the Arab countries such as Cairo, Syria, Persian Gulf, as well as Northern Africa countries like Morocco or Algeria, after the important general Arabian reform of the 1970s, termed infitah (opening). The author argues that most of economic reforms have been implemented on the basis of recommendations and pressures emanating from international financial institutions, such as the IMF and the World Bank, multilateral organizations, i.e.: OECD, the governments of OECD countries and the European Union. This suggests political changes which are depending on international aid and lobbying. The author analyzes general trends of the economic reforms in the Arab countries from the 1970s to 2005.
The aim of the study is to examine, on the basis of documents in the National Archives of the Czech Republic, the final part of the process of economic reform developed in Czechoslovakia almost from the beginning of the 1960s. After the invasion of the occupation armies in August 1968, its end was definitively decided, in spite of the fact that there was still some verbal support for the continued development of the economic reform and some space for the presentation of theoretical views that were not in harmony with the official policy. In this period during 1968, as well as during the so-called pre-spring, Slovak economists formulated some interesting views.
Although banking was not initially considered as essential, the planned implementation of selected elements of market economy and rehabilitation of money functions forced founding of an appropriate institutional environment. Besides the role of money and banks in socialist economy, the paper analyses the proposed modifications in the banking system and management of foreign currencies. During reorganization of the State Bank of Czechoslovakia the concept of separate emission and commercial banking was promoted. Changes in constitutional arrangements were to be initially reflected in the organization of monetary policy. After August 1968 reform proposals were gradually left. Finally, de facto no major changes were made. Despite this, changes in the banking sector endured to a certain extent, and they became a basis for attempts at activation of money in the following twenty years.
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