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The Image of Border, Foreign and Foreigner The study Migration of Italian culture into the territory of Slovakia – The Image of Border, Foreign and Foreigner is the final output of the scientific grant program Vega, summarizing a partial research of recent years, concerning the revival and continuation of existing and supressed genetically and typological links between the two cultures after 1990. The output of the research on the development of drama, theatre and literary theory as well as literary translations from Italian prove the parallel existence of several cultural communities during the forty years before 1990: the ideologically constituted Soviet community, the community of Danube cultures and the community of nations of former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Given that, Italian culture is situated at the intersection of the latter two communities, it appears that genetic and typological relations were not discontinued completely, although they were not linked to the Soviet cultural community. Noting the routes and diffusion of cultural information, the study has been inspired by Trieste – Istria border community, while it applies the Armando Gnisci theory of decolonization to the situation in Slovakia after 1990. Through the image of foreign and foreigner in the dramatic work by Dario Foa and through the translated works of Antonio Tabucchi (Indian Nocturne) and Alessandro Baricco (City), the study reconstructs the complicated process of acceptance of otherness and wonder rejection tension, which is typical for the culture on the territory of Slovakia regarding acceptance of foreign and foreigner from Italian culture. The literary works brought to Slovakia in Slovak translations have been studied as typical examples of reception of both, foreign and the image of foreigner. Despite the acquired freedom and restoration of the genetic and typological cultural relations, we can observe a relatively low ability to accept foreign elements and otherness. The works dealing with the image of foreign and foreigner have been available in the Slovak receptive territory, but the image of foreigner in them is striking and remains largely misunderstood. Although we longed for freedom during the era of communism, we did not know that freedom would mean „decolonization“ of ourselves from a misunderstanding of attributes that we perceive as foreign and from the complicated acceptance of a foreigner.
The labour market of the Opolskie voivodeship is changing. It is connected with emigration from the region, more noticeable dualisation of the labour market and progressive changes in the education community. The consequence of these changes are structural deficiencies in the labour force. And that is why, in the Opolskie voivodeship, growing interest in the employment of foreigners is seen. So, in this case, it was decided to conduct a study which covered employers and foreign workers. The aim was to encompass the factors determining the employment of foreigners in the opolskie voivodeship. According to the dual labour market theory of M. Piore, the respondents were divided into groups representing the primary labour market ('better' work) and the secondary labour market ('worse' work). The study showed that the use of foreign labour in certain sectors (industry and construction) and occupations is a necessity due to the lack of native workers ready to take up employment. Moreover, the foreigners who take up employment in the Opolskie voivodeship have chosen the region because of the demands made by local employers. The study also showed that the majority of employers in the secondary labour market through the employment of aliens keeps employment and production stable.
Content available remote Prawo do azylu w ustawodawstwie polskim
The problem of foreigners in the Republic of Poland has become especially current after 1989, because since that time an increasing number of foreigners have been applying for permanent residence permit on the territory of our country. Poland has become a transit country as a result of its particular geographical location, lying in the orbit of the impact of migratory movements in Europe nowadays – especially those running from the East to the West. Despite the detailed regulation of the institution of asylum in both the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997, as well as in the national legislation, the asylum is a form of assistance offered to the foreigners, used by them only sporadically. Furthermore, no positive decision regarding this matter was taken by the Polish authorities for several years. The necessity to meet rigorous prerequisites for getting an asylum granted seem to be the direct cause for this state of affairs. In addition, the necessity to express directly that the application of a foreigner concerns granting the right of asylum on the territory of the Republic of Poland also causes possible complications. The legal rules state that this form can be granted only if a foreigner states directly that he is applying for protection in the form of asylum. The lack of a clearly expressed will of the foreigner with respect to this results in considering such a request in the category of granting the refugee status. Furthermore, in view of the fact that a foreigner applying for the refugee status must meet much milder prerequisites and the effects of a positive decision with respect to this are almost analogous to the situation in which they would be granted an asylum for the reasons stated above, foreigners choose the “easier option”, which means in this case applying for the refugee status. In addition, it is necessary to mention that the decision of granting the right of asylum is based on the administrative discretion, which undoubtedly influences the low interest on the part of foreigners in this form of protection granted by the Polish authorities.
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