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The article deals with a coin hoard from Haunoldstein (A) and the impacts of the Marcommanic Wars in Noricum. A letter in the Archiv of the Oberstkämmereramt has new data about the finding circumstances and a description of 29 Denari. The hoard consist quasi 900 denari, a silver ring and a silver brooch type A236m. Based on this description belong the hoard of Haunoldstein to the witnesses of the Marcommanic Wars. The authors give an evaluation on the coin hoards and the impacts of the Marcommanis Wars in Noricum in the study.
This paper refers to three hoards of metal objects. Recent one from Rosovice and two older (but originally incorrectly dated) from Lety near Dobřichovice and Benátky nad Jizerou in central Bohemia region. The analysis confirmed that all three hoards were buried during 3rd – 4th century AD. The paper also includes the results of the archeometalurgical analysis of scythes found in Rosovice and description of making functional replicas.
The content of this paper are the new hoards from central Slovakia. 39 bronze objects come from 4 locations on a hill side. Hoard 1 consisted of long pins of type Hradec and Malá Vieska. Hoard 2 consisted of bracelets and spiral rings. On next two places were found 4 pins together and 1 separately. Horizon BD1 is represented by the hoard of circular jewels; all pin hoards belong to BD2, they are the oldest Lusatian Culture hoards in Slovakia. Units of HA1 with mixed content are representing the older component. Unusual stone facework on the hoard 2 leads us to the habit used for building of burial mounds. Relation with graves is shown by some examples from the Early and Middle Bronze Age in Bohemia (in stone facework as well), south-western Germany and Slovakia up to HA2, or HA2/HB1. The closest category of jewel hoards is of type Uriu-Ópályi in Maramureş and in Upper Tisa area. The connection with the other world or the treasure for the deceased is probable. The pins of type Malá Vieska with the head in the shape of a poppy head and their length as well are very similar to the poppy plant, reaching the height 1 – 1.6 m. The importance of this symbol with regard to its multiple meaning and the use of the seeds as food and the opium alkaloid from the unripe capsule of the poppy seed in healing and healing cults can be only anticipated. In the Slovak folk tradition the poppy was the symbol of prosperity. It had protective effect against deceased and witches. It was unsuitable for practical use because of its great length. What was their purpose and if they are really pins is an open question. The suggestions that they were weapons, or used for therapy and tattoo cannot be confirmed. For the profane use of the find 1 from Moštenica can speak new pins, probably wrapped and bound together, from the vicinity of the road, which was from Middle Ages known as Via Magna. For cultic reasons speak the location on the hill side, according to the other finds it can be called ‘the sacred mountain’.
Four hoards containing bronze artefacts, which were found illegally by a metal detector at the Lusatian hill-fort near Nemecka in 1994-1996, are professionally presented in the study. The total number of 43 artefacts comes from four independent units marked from I to IV. The hoard I included a head-band with forged geometric ornament. The hoard II consisted of twenty bronze rod neck-rings decorated with bundles of lines that make a feather ornament. The hoard III contained 18 artefacts - bronze cup of the Stillfried-Hostomice type with a bronze phalera inside it, 13 axes with socket, a sickle and two bronze cups. In the hoard IV three axes with socket and a spear were found. Around them a stone ring with diameter of approximately 1 m was formed allegedly. The finds were situated in its lower western half. Both the finder's information and the author's reconnaissance of the site proved that the finds were found out of the hill-fort area, approximately 50 m to the SSW of its shorter southern part. The hoards were situated on a terrace and followed a contour line. The groups of bronze artefacts were around 25 m distant each from the other. Analyses of revealed artefacts have dated all hoards to the Late Bronze Age. As their function is concerned, the all four cases are supposed to be votive donations. In his study the author gives also brief information on the history of the site and research. The hill-fort at the 786,3 m a. s. l. is a southern promontory of the Low Tatras mountain range. The creek Raztocky potok flows around the hill-fort from the west and the river Hron from the south. The site was situated in the N-S direction and even now its fortified line can be observed, which is the most remarkable on the southern side of the fortified area, where its height still comes up to 90 cm. The fortification was used to protect a rectangular area with dimensions of approximately 133 x 33 m. It was a small-sized hill-fort that was built as a refuge. In 1995 an investigation was led here, aimed in specification of the site chronology at first. Excavations proved that the site was settled by bearers of the Lusatian culture in the Late Bronze Age; later then in the La Tene up to the Roman periods and in the Middle Ages (the 15th cent.) as well.
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