Relationship between historiography and poetry and rhetoric (later literature) has long been a subject of theoretical reflection. The approaches to this issue varied according to the changing theory and practice of those disciplines, and of the choice of a descriptive or a normative attitude. At the same time one notices a sameness or a similarity of those views divided by a centuries-long distance. The article examines the modes of narration, cognitive and aesthetic goals, objectivism and subjectivism, truth and fiction, assertion and the lack of assertion, general and singular knowledge, casualness and essence, similar and different constructive and stylistic features of historical and literary texts. The views of Hayden White and Franklin Rudolf Ankersmit are accurately discussed. In conclusion, the author favors Krzysztof Pomian's view that the indispensable element of historiography is the evidence of what the author treats as factual, and this is the borderline between historiography and literature.