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1
Content available remote REMINISCENCE
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A Slovak National Theatre drama protagonist, an actress Sona Valentova, was a wife of P. Haspra, the director. Her special reminiscence reminds the final phase of the director's life, his fight against the malicious sickness. He was resisting until the last moment, preparing for the staging of Dostoyevsky's 'Dedina Stepancikovo' (The Village of Stepantchikovo) which was to be studied by the troupe in connection to his life jubilee.
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Content available remote HUMAN AND ARTISTIC VERSION OF IVAN RAJNIAK
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In summer of 2006 the Slovak theatrical artists and theatre supporters will commemorate two important jubilees - unaccomplished 75-th birthday of the actor, the member of the Slovak National Theatre drama troupe Ivan Rajniak, and 90-th birthday is to celebrate one of the founders of the modern Slovak theatrology, the academician Rudolf Mrlian. As a matter of a coincidence, both were born in a small village Hyba located under the Tatras, and the theatrologist R. Mrlian offered once a magazine to publish his monographic study on the actor I. Rajniak. The editorial office is, in the conviction that subconsciousness of continuity is a necessary prereqisite, publishing this study.
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Content available remote BORODÁČOVI CHLAPCI NA STRÁŽI
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This study deals with the production of the play Chlapci na stráži [Boys on Guard], which was awarded in a competition organized on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1938. It was written by Ján Borodáč, the artistic director of the Drama Company of the Slovak National Theatre, under the pseudonym of Ján Debnár. By the time it was premiered on 29 October 1939, there had been significant political changes. Following the Munich Agreement, Czechoslovakia, based on the decision of the prime ministers of France, Great Britain, Italy and Germany, had lost ethnically mixed Czech-German borderlands, President Eduard Beneš had offered his resignation and had gone into exile, and Slovakia had got the autonomy it was promised by the Pittsburgh Agreement (an obligation that had gone unfulfilled for long). The play which was supposed to celebrate the anniversary of the Czechoslovak Republic paradoxically acquired a new meaning under the pressure of these changes – it celebrated the autonomy and called for a defiance of revisionist pressures from Horthy’s Hungary.
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Content available remote ASSOCIATION OF THE SLOVAK NATIONAL THEATRE
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tom 56
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nr 2
236-258
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The study by a historian Frantisek Bokes (1906 -1968) from the beginning of the 60-ies of the 20th century has been preserved in the archives of the Cabinet of Theatre and Film of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The study is dedicated to analysis of development in the period of the first years of existence of the Slovak National Theatre from the aspect of the social - administrative connections of the origin of the first professional theatre in Slovakia. The operator of the Slovak National Theatre was the Association of the same name, established in 1919. The chairman of the Association became the Minister with full powers for governing Slovakia Dr. Vavro Srobar. This Association became the holder of the licence for professional theatrical activity in the whole territory of Slovakia. The theatre season was shared also by Czech, German and Hungarian theatre troupes, so that several months in year the Slovak national theatre (SNT) was performing in Kosice and other Slovak cities. In the season of 1921/22 the Promotional Troupe of SNT was also formed. Its mission was to exclusively perform in smaller cities and to promote Slovak (or more precisely Czech and Slovak) professional theatre. While the Association was dealing with the issue of operation, mostly with raising needed financial resources, the goal of the SNT artistic management was to create the conditions for gradual recruiting the Slovak artists and introducing the Slovak plays. In 1923 The Association of the SNT mandated the so called Actors' House, which in 70 appartments faciliated to stabilize the artistic powers of three SNT troupes (drama, opera, ballet). In the course of year 1923 there was a significant complication in the sphere of financial situation of the SNT. After the Minister of Education and National Enlightenment had been changed (Dr. Srobar had been after two years replaced by the Minister Rudolf Bechyne representing the social – democratic party), the state subvention was decreased and the finance supervision was tightened. The result of economic pressure on the Association was in the end concluding an agreement between the Ministry and the Association of the SNT, which meant that the SNT management went over into hands of the private theatre entrepreneur, a famous conductor Oskar Nedbal. This in fact concluded development phase where the Association of the SNT had played a key role, and in further years it remained in position of a representaive- control body.
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Since 1984 a new theatre building has been upgrowing in Bratislava. The regime of socialist nature not suspecting then that in five years will cease to end, had taken a resolution to invest into a grandiosely dispositionaly designed object with an independent scene for opera and ballet (900 spectators) for drama stagings (600 spectators) and an experimental flexible studio with capacity from 150 to appr. 250 seats. According to the original intentions the building was to be ready for the Slovak National Theatre by the beginning of 90s of 20th century, and even though the rough construction was assembled rather quickly, then tailing away began. After a turnover in 1989 the views on demolishing the construction were voiced out, since it had been thought to be a monument of the former regime. Resulting from a rapid inflation and price increase of all materials used, but also from the fact that many supplier companies had ceased, the construction was practically stopped in the half of 90s. In 1999 the Government adopted a decree on completing the construction in the election year 2002. Since this deadline was missed, the Government of Mikulas Dzurinda adopted a decision in 2003 about selling the building that was practically completed. After protests of the public and the opposition politics, the decision was changed and the Government started seeking the alternative ways of completing the construction. In 2004, the Government adopted the Memorandum on Understanding which enabled a private company Delaware (USA) to get control over the building, change the drama part into congress-shopping- entertaining complex and the site belonging to the building was to be used to construct a hotel. This step of the Government was met by a massive resistance. It was declined within the special meeting by the National Council of the Slovak Republic. The Council made it binding for the Government to complete the construction from public sources. On 14th April 2007 the theatre was dedicated with the most prominent representatives of the Slovak Republic present, and has become the residence of the Slovak National Theatre.
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Content available remote A NEW BUILDING OF SNT - NEW ARTISTIC THINKING
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The author, a Slovak theatrical critic and pedagogue, participated in the negotiations on constructing a new theatre building for the Slovak National Theatre in Bratislava in the second half of 20-th century. Since, on 14th April 2007 this building was ceremonially completed, it is interesting to read his memories where he is returning to the period of considerations on the need of a new theatre space. The author is emphasizing that in the second half of 20th century in older, usually adapted theatre spaces, was impossible to use the modern technical aquisitions when producing staging. So, the effort to construct an entirely new theatre building was not only the ambition of the then social elite to build an expressive architectonic dominant of the new municipal part on the Danube bank, but above all to create the better conditions for the artistic creation.
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Content available remote PAVOL HASPRA - ON ONE EPISODE - A VERY LONG SERIAL
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A process of the emancipation of a theatre from the position of an 'interpreter' of a poetic (ergo literary) work, typical for the 20th century European theatre, marked also Pavol Haspra's directorial creation. In the period of his coming to a professional theatre, a dominant position of a dramatist as a determining former of the resulting work of art, had not been not fully respected, but a conviction that a staging does not mean just a text 'animation', but a worthful and the original work of art, was gradually promoted. A theatrical dramatic adviser and a manager Stefan Fejko documents his implication on his co-operation with the director P. Haspra in preparatory work on Stefan Kralik's staging 'Margaret zo zamku' (Margaret from the Castle) in the Slovak National Theatre drama (opening on 19th January 1974 in the P.O. Hviezdoslav's Theatre).
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Content available remote MILOŠ PIETOR A SHAKESPEAROVE HISTORICKÉ KRONIKY V SND
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The plays of William Shakespeare, except for Hamlet (Nová scéna, 1974) and Richard III (SND, 1987), do not define the artistic profile of Miloš Pietor, yet they significantly supplement it. Although as a dramaturge he felt at his best in a different repertoire, his several encounters with Shakespeare cannot go unnoticed. They must be examined for complete information about the director’s artistic development, but also about the productions of Shakespeare in Slovakia. Pietor had encountered Shakespeare six times; their seventh encounter was interrupted by the director’s unexpected death. The present paper deals with Pietor’s production of Shakespeare’s historical chronicles for the Slovak National Theatre in the period of 1980–1987.
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Content available remote PAVOL HASPRA - 'JANOSIK' (FOLK HERO), SMALL BY GROWTH, GREAT BY ENERGY
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A director, colleague and peer of Pavol Haspra in a recollection feature talks about Haspra as about a director, whose trait is explosiveness, striking colours, sharp edges, rough and loud tones, an expressive abbreviation. He states that Haspra's stagings were built on the actors, and in the last phase he used to build on those 'his' ones who expressed their gratefulness by the professional efforts and perfomances in the plays with a strong dramatic conflict, full of the passion and the wild emotions.
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The article examines the work of opera director Miloš Wasserbauer during the 50s and at the beginning of the 60s of the 20th century in the Slovak National Theatre. The author analyses Wasserbauer’s approach to the productions and Slovak staging tradition from the perspective of the Czech director and the critical reflection of the performances. He focuses on the staging of new Slovak operas Ján Cikker’s Juro Jánošík and Beg Bajazid, and Eugen Suchoň’s Svätopluk. Special attention is paid to the conceptualisation of Slovak national feeling in the corpus of archive materials.
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Content available remote PALO HASPRA - ALSO 'MY' DIRECTOR
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Palo Haspra seen by the eyes of an actor who outlived with him unforgettable thirty-four years in a theatre but also in a film or a television production. The member of the Slovak National Theatre drama troupe, and a frequently cast actor Dusan Taragel, states that working with this director was hard, drudging sometimes hectic, full of the jitters and the fights, but also full of the inventing new unknown possibilites, many times like opening windows into unexpected distances and spheres which neither he or his 'subordinates' that is the actors, had never dreamt about before. A theatre shark, a turbulent person, a super-active male, a knot of the nerves, a man of a plumbless energy having been able to occasionally draw the actors mad while rehearsing, often causing them to act in trance against him - expressly and absurdly, sometimes dementedly, submissively, even insanely, and not once, especially in these affects, he used to yell: 'This is it, this is exactly what I wanted'.
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Content available remote ON ERA OF THEATRE OF PAVOL ORSZAGH HVIEZDOSLAV
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In the spring of 2007 the dramatic troupe of the Slovak National Theatre (SNT) moved from the scene of the Theatre of P.O. Hviezdoslav and 'Mala scena' (Small Scene) into the completed premises of the National Theatre. The building of the Theatre of P.O. Hviezdoslav which had the theatre been provided from (with in) 1955 (opened by Borodac's production of Hviezdoslav's tragedy 'Herodes and Herodias' on 28th May 1955) after a half century lost the status of the local scene of the representative Slovak drama. The author who spent a substantial part of this period in the SNT drama as a dramaturgist, is in his recollection returning back to the most remarkable creative results of the theatre, connected with his activities in this building.
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Content available remote HEREC SVETO HURBAN
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This study presents the profile of Sveto Hurban, a young actor from the drama company of the Slovak National Theatre. The grandson of Jozef Miloslav gained his first theatre experience in former Yugoslavia. First he attended an acting school in Novi Sad for two years and then, in 1928, he joined the company of the Serbian National Theatre. In spring 1929 he became a member of the drama company of the Slovak National Theatre. At first, he received only minor roles but he could make the most of them (see Števko in Tajovský’s Ženský zákon [Female Law]). Later he was cast into major roles. He played Satin in Borodáč’s production of Gorkij’s The Lower Depths, a leading part in Vladimir Hurban Vladimirov’s Či nepoznáte môjho synovca? [Don’t You Know My Nephew?] and Chekhovoi in Afinogenov’s Fear. His well-started career was, however, terminated by an unfortunate accident. On 30 July 1933 he went swimming in the Lower Land’s Danube and drowned at Zemun. He was buried in Stará Pazova, in a family tomb next to his father Konštantín and brother Cyril.
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The paper examines the work of the acclaimed German opera and theatre director Peter Konwitschny at the Opera of the Slovak National Theatre. The author bases herself on an analysis of the productions of Eugen Onegin (2005), by Tchaikovsky, Puccini’s Madama Butterfly (2007) and Bohéma (2013), Janáček‘s Vec Makropulos (2015), and Halévy‘s Židovka (2017), all of which, save for Janáček‘s opera, the Opera of the Slovak National Theatre has borrowed from foreign theatre scenes. The author makes a stocklist of the basic principles of Konwitschny’s direction signature and his contribution to theatre production, as well as to the artistic ensemble of the Bratislava Opera.
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Content available remote UMELECKÉ ŤAŽENIE REŽISÉRA PETRA KONWITSCHNÉHO PROTI „MŔTVEJ OPERE“
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The text deals with selected principles of the work of the German opera director Peter Konwitschny (1945). The lifelong ambition of an artist who openly proclaims a left-wing orientation is to distract the audience from consuming indulgence in beautiful music and make them a socially responsible, thoughtful participant in his productions. He has created, during his half-century career, a stable database of isotopes through which he fulfils his ideas, from curtain up in the auditorium to solutions resembling immersive theatre strategies. The author presents examples from several productions that Peter Konwitschny has directed on European stages, including the Slovak National Theatre in Bratislava.
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Content available remote A PERSONAL RECOLLECTION ON A DIALOGUE OF AN ACTOR WITH DIRECTOR
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An actor who was co-operating several years with the director Pavol Haspra in the Slovak National Theatre drama, and also in the television production, recalls their creative encounters. Palo Haspra was according to Sarvas's experience an original, inimitable director, mainly when it comes to work with an actor. There were some doubts whether he was prepared, or simply started creating straight on the spot, reasoning that he was only choosing what could be gained and found on the stage. This is not true. His directorial book was always carefully prepared. Other thing is, that he really allowed himself to be inspired by the rehearsals, by the actors, and that straight away he could see things much differently on the stage. There were some actors who did not like this method much, murmuring, muttering, or rebelling against, but when working with him, each of them created the unforgettable dramatic creations. Haspra was a daredevil, researcher, able to exalt a dramatic text into a specific staging art, namely such works of art, which had not been performed before - e.g. our classics. He was not afraid to direct the young contemporary authors, he was not the man to settle for the trodden pathways. He risked. And alongside with that, I cannot recall a single staging that would have been bad.
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The birth of the Slovak National Theatre did not immediately yield the growth of Slovak drama and Slovak theatre art. Its dramaturgical and staging challenges were just waiting for the first Slovak actors, dramaturges, and directors. In the early years of his career, by gradual steps, Ján Borodáč endeavoured to promote the Slovakness of the predominantly Czech drama ensemble of the national theatre. In person and in writing, he frequently exchanged views with the leading figures of Slovak culture, including the literary critic Štefan Krčméry. The discovered correspondence of Borodáč corroborates his efforts and supplements and clarifies some issues regarding the professionalization of theatre in the 1920s.
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The study deals with the increase in the introduction of modern opera production at the Slovak National Theatre in the 1960s. The author interprets it not only as an attempt of dramaturgy to enliven the traditional repertoire, but in particular as an ambition to apply more modern theatrical poetics in the production opera practice. Since there was no practice of updating classic opera production in Slovakia in the sense of “Regietheater” at that time, this production of the 20th century was considered to be the most realistic way of reviving opera. At the same time, the study highlights the social motivation of this intention: an effort to address a new, progressively oriented audience that would create appeal for a conventionally oriented audience that primarily focuses on the musical-vocal component of opera productions.
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The study examines the introduction of the 20th-century opera production to the Slovak National Theatre Opera in 1920–1938. It comes to a finding that it constituted a quantitatively significant part, especially in Karel Nedbal’s era (1928–1938). However, a qualitative analysis reveals that only some of the produced titles were successfully time-tested and included into the key opera repertoire, today referred to as the 20th-century opera classics. These included Leoš Janáček and Richard Strauss’s operas and the profile opuses of the 20th-century opera avant-garde (for example, Sergei Prokofiev’s The Love for Three Oranges, or Dmitri Shostakovich’s Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk). On the other hand, the Slovak National Theatre ignored the classic opuses of Impressionism (Debussy, Ravel, Falla), Neoclassicism (Stravinsky, Hindemith), or the Second Viennese School (Schönberg, Berg) and their successors. However, it produced several titles which are nowadays regarded as historical artefacts of the period, which had no further stage life. The study also considers rarely produced or no longer produced plays by Czech and Slovak authors and opuses which fulfilled rather extra-artistic (social) roles in their times (for example, works by authors from allied countries), that means productions which have been more or less overlooked by researchers so far.
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tom 56
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nr 3
345-351
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The paper analyzes two production approaches to the interpretation of the 19th century Czech opera: to Smetana's 'Hubicka' (The Kiss, 1876), directed by Pavel Smolik in the Slovak National Theatre Opera, in 2003, and to Dvorak's 'Rusalka' (1901), directed by Jiri Nekvasil in the Slovak National Theatre Opera, in 2005. Both the directors have had a lucky hand in bringing the interpretation of these two operatic pieces up to date using the tools of modern direction theatre in opera. Both productions show a connection between the perception past of these operas and their contemporary interpretation, both production presuppose a critical involvement of the audiences who interpret the stage form on the basis of the perception past of these two operas. The stage forms of 'Hubicka' and 'Rusalka' capitalize on the diversity of relations between the text and their stage forms, thus opening new prospects for other production interpretations.
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