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14
Content available Struktura podaży odpadów drzewnych w Polsce
75%
EN
Timber harvesting and wood processing are inseparably accompanied by various waste production. Waste wood, in the form of remains of tree care and correctly conducted logging operations, may be a product of forestry activities. It includes branches, boughs or rootwood. Post−industrial waste wood varies in form and the degree of shredding, and in terms of its contamination with both chemical compounds and mechanical or mineral pollutants. Daily living activities are a source of post−consumer waste wood, including demolition wood and furniture, the management of which is the most challenging task. Agricultural crop waste is a category that is often overlooked. It includes pruning waste, waste being an effect of plant regeneration in orchards and soft fruit plantations, or field or roadside shrub removal. The difficulty with assessing potential quantity of waste wood is to large extent caused by the lack of rational and comprehensive legal solutions. It should be noted that waste holders generating up to 10 t of sawdust, wood particles, wood, waste particleboards or veneer, or up to 10 t of waste bark or cork annually, are not obliged to keep a record of such waste. Another important factor hindering the determination of the supply of waste wood in Poland is the lack of a clear system of its classification. Consequently, there is no data concerning waste wood quantity. Considering the supply of wood materials and products, their characteristics and intended use, we can assumed that the greatest quantity contaminated waste is generated by furniture and wood−based panels industry. The paper also points out the inconsistencies in the literature regarding the determination of the potential waste wood base. In general, approximately 8.0 million m³ of post−industrial waste wood are generated in Poland every year. The supply of post−consumer waste wood is at a level of approximately 5.3 million m³. The supply of wastes from forestry and agricultural crop waste equals 3.8 million m³ and 0.4 million m³, respectively. So approximately 18.0 million m³ of waste wood, varying in terms of origin, form and properties, may be generated in Poland annually. Considering the wood shortage that can be observed in Poland, as well as the substantial quantities and availability of waste wood, these two latter factors may constitute an alternative source of wood raw materials for a number of sectors of the economy.
PL
Celem artykułu było określenie zmian strukturalnych w sektorze wieprzowiny w Unii Europejskiej. Analiza objęła kraje unijne o największym udziale w produkcji tego gatunku mięsa. Dokonano oceny aktualnej sytuacji branży pod względem podaży, zamieszczono także dane dotyczące skali chowu i obsady zwierząt w gospodarstwach trzodowych w wybranych państwach w 2010 roku w porównaniu z latami poprzednimi. Na tym tle ukazano wskaźniki efektywności produkcyjno-ekonomicznej. Informacje zawarte w publikacji pozwoliły na sformułowanie wniosków na temat procesów restrukturyzacji sektora. Stwierdzono, że w UE zmienia się struktura geograficzna podaży mięsa wieprzowego, dochodzi bowiem do koncentracji pogłowia w wybranych krajach unijnych. W artykule wykorzystano materiały źródłowe Komisji Europejskiej, Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego, Departamentu Rolnictwa Stanów Zjednoczonych oraz bazy danych Eurostatu.
EN
The aim of this article was to determine the structural changes in the pigmeat sector in the European Union and the analysis covered mainly EU countries with the largest share in the production of this kind of meat. Assessment of the current situation of the industry in terms of supply was made. Moreover, data on the scale of breeding in pig farms in selected countries were indicated, including also the previous years. On this background, the indicators of production and economic efficiency were shown. The information contained in the publication allowed to draw conclusions about the process of restructuring the sector. The main conclusions of publication indicated that the geographic structure of pork supply, as well as the concentration of pigs herd in selected EU countries is changing. The article uses the source materials of the European Commission, the Central Statistical Office, U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Eurostat database.
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