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1
Content available remote Confiteor - konec romantismu
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The article is concerned with 'Confiteor' (1887), the first collection of verse by Josef Svatopluk Machar (1864-1942). It places him in the concerns of 1890s literature and analyzes the nature of the persona and irony, both of which are unique in the Czech verse of his day. Machar's approach to the Romantic is ambivalent. On the one hand he exhibits the Romantic tradition; on the other, the Romantic is absent or consistently ironized. This approach is linked with his fear of metaphysical questions and his evident questioning of the status of poetry merely on a sociological level. The authoress' interpretation constitutes a return to assessing the aesthetic value of the literary text; at the same time it considers the problem of Machar as founder of Czech Modernism. In so doing, she looks at continuities between Romanticism and Modernism.
Bohemistyka
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2012
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tom 12
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nr 2
108-117
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This article is an attempt to indicate groups of lexical units omitted in bilingual Polish-Czech and Czech-Polish dictionaries. One of the groups is made up of the presented public notices i.e. warnings and bans constituting vital elements of the contemporary reality which they describe and provide language users with important information. The public notices analyzed in the article include fixed minitexts which are neglected in a bilingual dictionary and makes it impossible for a language user to find appropriate foreign counterparts. The article also contributes to the author’s considerations related to theoretical and practical issues connected with notation of public notices: methods of creating their dictionary entries, their graphical notation, application of relevant qualifiers, etc.
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Content available remote Časoměrné vzorce a metra v české národním obrození
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The article analyzes rules of prosody in the work of the Czech writers of the National Revival. In the Puchmajer Group the syllabotonic system won out. In the 1810s and throughout the 1820s in an attempt to achieve higher artistic goals there was a boom in Czech quantitative verse; but Classical metres were used only for translations.
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Content available remote The Verse Style of Jiri Karasek's Second Period
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The article considers works from Jiri Karásek ze Lvovic's second period of writing verse - namely the collections 'Endymion' (1909) and 'Ostrov vyhnancu' (Isle of the Banished, 1912). It aims primarily to describe his style in this period and compare it with his style from the previous one. In his second period, Karásek (1871-1951) turned completely away from the verse libre that had been typical of his first period and his style became fully harmonized. The harmonizing tendency influenced his return to the brilliantly conceived sonnet, which predominated mainly in 'Endymion'. In this period his style also shifted to the use of stylization approaches. His poems from the first period considered the theme of the 'unknown brothers', kindred spirits of the persona, of a being proclaiming the same ideals as he did. In the second period these persona were made strikingly concrete by means of poems stylized as the characters' own utterances. In these utterances, moreover, a relationship began, nearly of self-identification (or self-stylization), with an unspecified lyrical subject. These new poems are distinguished chiefly by a clear dramatic quality and are reminiscent of monologues for the stage. An important shift took place in his echoes of Antiquity. Whereas in his first period everyday life in Antiquity predominated in a chronotopical stylization, in Karásek's second period Classical mythology predominates. A shift also took place in his general perception of historical periods. Compared to his earlier adoration of historical chronotopes, his work in this period (particularly in 'Ostrov vyhnancu') expresses a striking antagonism between the individual and the milieu. Apart from this complex description the article also concentrates on several topics stemming directly from the shifts in Karásek's style, which took place in the second period. It presents a broad picture of the motif of the androgyne in his work, and suggests several analogies between his style and androgyny. It describes in detail two of Karásek's central conceptions of Classical Antiquity - everyday Antiquity and mythological Antiquity - and compares them. Since the influence of Jaroslav Vrchlický (1853-1912) is often emphasized in assessments of Karásek's second period as a poet, the article also compares the styles of the two writers, pointing out certain similarities and differences.
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Content available remote Vjačeslav Lebeděv a česká poezie
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An article that is focused on review articles by Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Lebedev (1896-1969) on contemporaneous Czech poetry (from the 1930s).
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Content available remote Rýmové útvary a konfigurace Máchova Máje
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The article considers the rhyme structure of Mácha's 'Máj'. It first describes the rhyme forms as passages from which the overall rhyme patterns of the sections are then composed. It then analyzes the morphology and types of these forms and patterns, and discusses their unusual diversity. In 'Máj' Mácha employs rhyme forms between two and seven lines in length (and sometimes, though rarely, even longer ones), from which particularly those from four to seven lines are usually of several types and variations, in part regular, in part irregular. The rhyme patterns are shorter (up to ten lines), utterly individual, that is to say, they always have a different rhyme sequence and combination of rhyme forms. Apart from the length, one can discern also odd and even patterns (with the odd or even number of lines) and especially regular and irregular ones. In terms of syntax and motif the pattern boundary overlaps with the section boundaries; the boundaries of the rhyme forms alternate without apparent regularity with the syntactical units or motifs.
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Josef Kainar's 'Strihali dohola malého chlapecka' (A Little Boy's Hair Was Cut to the Skin) - the subject of this article - is one of the best-known poems in Czech literature of the twentieth century. Literary critics have linked that poem with existential philosophy, and for good reason. The situation of the boy in the title is one of extreme transition. Important in this poem is the gaze of the Other, which Jean-Paul Sartre analyzed in 'Being and Nothingness'. That sort of gaze objectifies the boy. Kainar's text can also be examined from another perspective. The collection in which the poem appeared is called 'New Myths', and that title recalls the notion of 'new myth' seen in the writings of Jindrich Chalupecký, leader of Group 42, to which Kainar belonged. Writing about the shorn boy, Kainar indeed creates a new myth, one situated in ordinary life. Though a new myth, the mythmaking power of the story reinforces its connection to ancient ritual, specifically to the hairclipping rite well-known also in Slavic cultures. That ritualized haircutting has often been considered a form of initiation. It seems that in Kainar's poem, the haircut suggests the initiation of the boy into the truth of human existence. And that human world is revealed to be devoid of any metaphysical dimension, religious conviction, or higher meaning, and tending to the merely physiological. It is a world that's disgusting, arbitrary, and cruel.
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Content available remote Jak dnes vydávat českou barokní hymnografii?
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This essay on the editing methods for a Czech hymnography of the early modern age also takes issue with Marie Skarpová's review of the volume 'Cistý plamen lásky' (Love's pure flame), of which Malura was editor, in Ceská literatura 52 (2004), no. 6.
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This essay is dedicated to specific aspects of literary and plastic art of anthropology of Czech surrealism. The time between the wars as 'thirty years lasting war of the twentieth century' (H.-G. Gadamer), was at the same time an 'Age of anxiety' (W. H. Auden), an époque of a deeply affected trust of the world. The experience of the consecutive rakishness of the known world, of its lost balance and its changing into a space hostile to human beings, is gaining its most concise expression in living the fear of world and its surrealistic outline of a world of fear. In this foreground arrive for the anthropology of Czech surrealism specific forms of destruction of the human body to a fragment, bizarre hybrid, an artificial fact or at the other sense to a shockingly amorphous, shapeless mass beyond the limits of anatomical articulation. The first chapter is dedicated to a phenomenological analysis of an experience of fear. Then the author reconstructs motive of surrealistic metamorphosis of the body in the poetry of Vitezslav Nezval (Absolutni hrobar) and specific modes of miniaturizing and reduction of space in the poetry of Jindrich Heisler and in paintings, and graphics of Toyen and Jindrich Styrský.
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Content available remote Kollár, Petrarca a Dante
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By way of introduction the author demonstrates first the Petrarchan and then (for the last two sonnets, published in the 1832 edition) Dantean inspiration of the cycle 'Slávy dcera' by the Slovak-born poet Jan Kollár, and points out the incompatibility of the two models. He describes Kollár's reading of Petrarch and Dante (both in German translation) as partial, since he used only selected elements of form and motif. Kollár's appreciation of the two Italian poets was undoubtedly not without reservations: on the basis of a passage from a description of Kollár's journey to northern Italy in 1841, the author of the article concludes that the distanced way Kollár talks about his models reveals criticism of them from Protestant and Panslav positions. Kollár was nevertheless able to assess positively his contact with Petrarch and Dante: if it was the Petrarchan sonnet that taught him concise, semantically rich expression, it was the stylistic openness of Dantean 'realism', which led him to experiment with form in the framework of a heroic-comic genre.
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Content available remote V labyrintech Holanovy pozdní lyriky : Nad knihou Zdeňka Kožmína
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AThis essay on the late lyric verse of Vladimir Holan, inspired by Zdenek Kozmin's 'Existencionalita', also presents an overview of previous important interpretations of Holan's work – apart from Kozmin, it mentions the work of Premysl Blazicek and Jiri Opelik.
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The paper is an attempt at a quantitative corpus related approach to the subject of multilingualism in contemporary Czech poetry (published both in books as well as on literary servers). The authors of the paper examine the frequency and distribution of foreign (i.e. non-Czech) lexical units, raise questions about the forms and functions of individual means of expression; three selected poets (T. Kafka, M. Šanda, M. Torčík) are analysed more in-depth. In addition, the paper is a piece of news about a database being developed – contemporary poetry corpus – and the possibilities of using it. It suggests how beneficial the quantitative data analysis in the first phase of linguistically oriented literary research can be, or it points to the necessity of interconnecting the quantitative and qualitative approaches; it is only the researcher´s interpretative competence that can actually define the boundaries of the research field and the significance of the present elements. When conducting text-centred analyses, language corpora should begin to play a role similar to that of other tools of scientific infrastructure, e.g. bibliographic database.
Bohemistyka
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2013
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tom 13
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nr 2
101 - 122
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In the following article I present text-sound works of Jaromír Typlt on the background of one of the most interesting phenomena in contemporary Czech culture, which is audio art. Reflection on audio art and sound poetry is an introduction to writer's works. His textes and compositions from borderland of arts, especially so-called zmutovaná autorská čtení and a cycle Audio, which raises issue of sound, hearing and their connections with literature also are analyzed in this article.
EN
The article aims at interpretation of cultural-philosophical tendencies related to the changes in the structures of experience of the (post)industrial landscape of Ostrava in the period 1989 – 2023. In the theoretical part, the notion of the “structure of experience” as a basic category of the contextual approach to culture is discussed, thus emphasising the historical and ideological conditionality of literature as a contemporary record of the lived experience of a particular community. It draws on a structural-analytic approach in which the structure of experience represents a complex arrangement of patterns, principles, and strategies that appear in various modifications as the predominant features of human thought and experience. The contextual analysis reflects on Ostrava’s (post)industrial landscape with regard to ongoing deindustrialisation and traces how global socio-economic transformations and changes in the dominant structures of experience (of postmodernism and meta-modernism) manifest themselves at the empirical and symbolic levels. Using selected examples of representatives of the older and younger generations of Ostrava poets who experienced/are experiencing the (post)industrial landscape at one time or another, it describes specific manifestations of postmodern and then meta-modern structures of experience.
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Content available remote Kognitivní lingvistika, řeč a poezie : (Předběžné poznámky)
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The first two parts of this article outline the context of cognitive and cultural linguistics. It discusses, first, its starting point in empirical realism and anthropocentrism and its conception of the universal and the relative. It then briefly explains the basic concepts and the bases of this approach to language and the human mind: the linguistic picture of the world, corporeality, conceptual metaphor, and categorization (particularly in connection with linguistic meaning). The third and most important part of the article demonstrates, on using examples from the poetry of Holan, Skácel, and Topinka, the stimuli that might link cognitive experience with the conception of the poetic text, and thus aid the interpretation of poetry. This is primarily a matter of connotations. According to the chief representatives of cognitive-cultural linguistics, the Polish scholars Ryszard Tokarski and Anna Pajdzinska, poetry provides ample evidence, from the point of view of semantics, for verbal connotations that are otherwise unregistrable. This implies processes of recategorization and relativization of normal functional meanings, which are most blatant, in Pajdzinska's terms, in 'poetic definitions'. Re-evaluation and relativization apply also to normal conceptual schemes. Here, I write about 'linking' and 'container'. The last part of the article concerns the conceptualization of speech, as it may be interpreted on the basis of Miloslav Topinka's collection of verse 'Krysí hnizdo' (Rat Hole).
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Employing various perspectives, the author sheds light on some technical terms like transcription, translation and poetical translation which are current in Slovak translatological discourse of the past decades and pays attention to some of the cultural and political aspects of translation of Czech literature into Slovak in the 1970s and 1980s. Building on the translatological research into Rufus' translation method, he focuses on the poetics of Milan Rufus' translations (1928-2008), especially on his translations of the poems of an important Czech poet Frantisek Hrubin (1910-1971). The detailed analysis and the comparison of the original with the translation shows that a translation from a cognate language is not unproblematic even for big and original poets like Jan Kostra or Milan Rufus. The author draws on Marian Andricik's thesis about the 'dual domicile' of the poet and of the translator methodologically and he comes to the conclusion that the previous translatological analyses of the so-called updated translations of Czech poetry into Slovak (these are translations by Jan Kostra, Vojtech Mihalik, Milan Rufus and others) often bypassed the problem of semantic and syntactic shifts in translation and by emphatic statements about congeniality, about translation as an act of identification they rather obscured the core of the problem. In other words, the author of the present study points out the need of an objective view of the whole complex of questions related to the problem of translation of Czech poetry into Slovak in the second half of the last century.
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