The article aims to analyze methodologies for identification and distinguishing of industries by R&D capacity and technological intensity, and construct a methodology for measuring Ukrainian industries, in order to study structure of the national industry. Relevant methodologies and practices of leading international organizations, such as the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the OECD, Canadian Ministry for Science and Technology, as well as the former USSR are reviewed. A methodology for R&D capacity measurement in the Ukrainian industry (by industry) with accounting for science & technology, innovation and production capacities by use of existing official statistical indicators is built. Estimations of R&D capacity at industrial enterprises of Ukraine on the basis of data for 2008 are made. Results of comparisons of industries' grouping by technology level, practiced in Ukraine and in the OECD, are discussed, with emphasis on common and distinctive features of the two groupings. Analysis of groups of industrial objects in Ukraine with various R&D capacity (by economic activity), estimated on the basis of official statistical data, demonstrates full mismatch between science & technology, innovation and industrial policies in Ukraine, being an evidence of insignificance (underdevelopment) of technologically advanced productions in Ukraine.