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1
Content available Emmanuel Mounier’s idea of personalizm
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PL
The term personalism and the problem of the mystery of person has long occupied a prominent place in the study of philosophy. One of the most famous proponents of the idea of personalism is a French philosopher Emmanuel Mounier. His broad philosophical education has become an inspiration to attempt to create a philosophy  defending the value of man as a person. Starting from Christian thought he tried, using multiple and sometimes conflicting philosophies, to build a personalistic  system, the center of which is a person. It was reflected in his selection of collaborators publishing  in his journal “Esprit”, where philosophers of various denominations wrote, but the source of their common interests was a person. Personalism, according to Mounier, is a philosophy that comprehensively solves the problem of the person, on spiritual and material levels, and is a counterweight to the individualistic and collectivist tendencies. Trying to explain the mystery of the person, he does not give a precise definition, because the person is not the object, which can be simply defined. Personalism developed by Mounier is not a closed system, but just like the human being it is in the process of continuous becoming. It is a response to the crisis of man searching his identity as a person in the world.
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The essence and features of culture as specific human way of activity or the mirror of person soul are revealed in the article. Steps of culture towards the person and steps of the person to culture are characterized. Their mutual meeting ennobles the person spiritually and promotes vigorous activity on transformation surrounding reality by laws of true, good and beauty.
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Economics and ethics are practical sciences. The common research subject of both sciences is man. Economics is looking for an answer to the question of how to manage in business life. Ethics looks for the answer to the question of how to live. Because man is a person, his value brings consequences for all areas of human activity. This also applies to the market. The market is one of the foundations of economic life and is a great good for people and societies. The market is defined in different ways. It is worth comprehensively describing what the market is, emphasizing its personal character. In economics, attention is paid to market failure, understood mostly as the ineffectiveness of management (deviation from the model market, which is perfectly competitive). The negative impact of the market on society is also identified. Although moral aspects are increasingly taken into account in the concept of market failure, there is no general theory that attempts to capture market in moral aspects. Therefore, it is worth asking whether such a theory is possible. The construction of the moral theory of market failure can be a reference point to the analysis of market practices and institutional conditions from an ethical point of view.
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The majority of the philosophical proves of the existence of God or other philosophical attempts of talking about Him try to meet standards of rationality only. In this way they reach mostly a philosophical notion of God which rules out a religious relationship to Him. Zubiri is trying to present a philosophical way which leads to a notion of God, who can be at the same time a God of philosophy and of religion. But this means overcoming rationality with reasonableness. Reasonable means compatible with human life.
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Modernity has made “person” a problematic term. By tracing the etymology of several common words whose origin pre-dates the scientific revolution – “intend,” “know,” “moment,” “deliberate,” and “true” – we can discern some of the sensibilities upon which a systematic recovery of the personal might best be based.
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The considerations’ point of departure is as follows: the biological nature’s transgression affects realization of a person. I start with a short description of this thesis. Next I relate achieved data to the situation of people who cannot develop their personal capacities because of physical or mental disabilities. Such a situation fuels the perennial philosophical (and pedagogical) debate about the value of live. And I also make a little contribution in this discussion. Namely, I argue that disabled people do not live in a less valuable way.
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PL
Development of technoscience and technologies in our times cause a lot of dangers regarding human being. It is happening on an unprecedented scale. Social media can manipulate posts and mediated data. Neuro-science, bio-science and technologies mixed with agencies can lead to manipulation of personal data. Even our brains are in danger because of taking part in computer games. Furthermore, in fact nobody knows how financial markets operate. All this regards people in all the world. These processes are not depending on citizens because are not recognised. Reality is endangered by falsehood: social falsehood. The article shows some of ways can provide stability and clearness in human ethic which oppose these falsehood. This ethic is based on Christian anthropology, in particular two attitudes: solidarity and protest (against badness) in opposite of attitudes conformity and avoidance. Solidarity and protest would ensure security in human ambience, eliminate unfair practices of manipulation, especially in virtual life. In view of technoscience and technologies only return to basic of human existence arouse hope for develop of human being. In spite of this anthropology which is real and positive answer for these dangers everyone have to find exit from these dangerous situations by myself.
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In modern economic theories, human qualities are treated as autonomous production factors, which are called “human capital”. However, these theories provide no description of the relationship between human capital and the man who is its “bearer”, nor an explanation of the formation process of that capital. In the thesis, the author tries to justify it as follows: human qualities, including knowledge and skills, are an integral part of a human being, that is, they are involved in every human act. It is, therefore, wrong to analyse their economic significance in isolation from the whole structure of human activity. Through his or her action, man discovers the potential in things and relationships in the form of the possibility of using them for a particular purpose. Capital is thus realized by the human potential of things that form a system for transforming the world. In the first part of the article, a general description of human capital will be provided. In the second part, it will be criticized, while in the third part, there will be an attempt to show the proper relationship between man and capital from the perspective of personalism.
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This paper aims to give a synthetic account of the shock that the concept of responsibility experienced in the 20th century, having advanced from being a legal and moral concept to being a fundamental existential and ontological notion. According to the new understanding of responsibility, it is not freedom but responsibility itself that constitutes human subjectivity. Responsibility turns out to be prior to all the choices we make, prior to freedom. It is also a thoroughly positive phenomenon, i.e. accounting for all the good that a person is equipped with and directing him towards the future, as opposed to its negative construal, where it was generally a consequence of some evil deed committed in the past. This new understanding of responsibility is presented as a fundamental concept of the “new way of thinking” that the future will demand of us.
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Bauman Z., Nowoczesność i zagłada, Warszawa 1992.Bauman Z., Płynna nowoczesność, Kraków 2006.Bauman Z., Ponowoczesność jako źródło cierpień, Warszawa 2000.Bèriault Y., Etty Hillesum. Świadek Boga w otchłani zła, Warszawa 2011.Frankl V., Bóg ukryty. W poszukiwaniu ostatecznego sensu, Wyd. Czarna Owca, Warszawa 2015.Frankl V., Człowiek w poszukiwaniu sensu, Wyd. Czarna Owca, Warszawa 2015.Gadacz T., Kryzys „europejskiego człowieczeństwa” [La crisi dell’ “umanità europea”], http://www.iumw.pl/kryzys‑­europejskiego‑­czlowieczenstwa.html (13.07.2016).Grygiel S., Jestem, więc modlę się, Poznań 2011.Hillesum E., Myślące serce. Listy, Wyd. WAM, Kraków 2002.Hillesum E., Przerwane życie. Pamiętnik 1941–1943, Wyd. WAM, Kraków 2013.Szmyd J., Moralność w ponowoczesnym świecie – kryzys i nadzieja, “Res Humana” n. 2 (2008), http://www.kulturaswiecka.pl/node/125 (13.07.2016).Tylor Ch., Źródła podmiotowości. Narodziny tożsamości nowoczesnej, Warszawa 2012.
EN
The quest for and the discovery of the meaning of life, so basic to human existence, play a fundamental role in the process of self‑­discovery, that is, in the examination of our own identity, subjectivity and the “self”. Underlying this quest are not merely vague approximations to what man is, but clear fundamental dimensions of humanity: freedom and responsibility.Etty Hillesum and Victor Frankl, take different perspectives on the meaning of life of a person who experiences himself, the world, others and God in the face of war and extreme circumstances (Etty perished in Auschwitz, Frankl survived the concentration camps). However, they both point to the universal trait of the utmost engagement of the will and the assumption of responsibility for one’s life, despite the inevitability of death and the prevalent “cultural hibernation”.In both analyses, freedom appears as a response to reality, to the here and now. That response, as such, means taking responsibility for reality and its shape. Hence it an important question to ask would be what it means to take control of one’s destiny. Is it an obligation, a task, life’s demand, or perhaps just submission to what life may bring? Freedom, which is constantly threatened, must fight for itself. This happens owing to the will to live, which first evokes meaning and then the obligation of taking responsibility for oneself, for others, and even for God himself.
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The article is devoted to the process of preparing students of the Faculty of Education at the University of Warsaw to conduct art classes in educational institutions. It contains an analysis of several selected issues that are key for this subject: justification of the presence of visual arts in education, the characteristics that accompany the presence of educational processes, the relevance of the child’s visual artistic activity as an important issue for pedagogical practice. In addition, the article contains a brief description of the visual artistic activity of students during workshops.
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Poverty, if it is not properly viewed by the public, may lead to the depersonalization of both poor and living in the midst of those who need help. Poverty is experienced by children in a specific way. They often suffer from hunger, they are undernourished, and they have limited access to a variety of goods, including culture and education. This, in turn, is often reflected in their self-esteem, a sense of self-dignity. The role of the school in fighting the poverty of the students is shown in this article. The existing forms of aid to poor students are presented, as well as the challenges facing the school in terms of helping marginalized students. It is also crucial for the teachers themselves to be trained in such a way that would promote not only the intellectual development of the students, but most of all – the pro-social attitudes and that would emphasize the value and dignity of a person.
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Scientific and technical development is a great ally for the mankind. It helps solve various problems such as hunger, diseases or acquire new energy sources. However, it may as well lead to captivating a person or treating them like objects. Thus, in self- development it’s essential to keep both- ethical and personal as well as technological perspective prior to any other. Owing to them personal development can be properly oriented and used in the interests of a human being.
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The author analyzes derivatives from the old Slavic root *seb-/*sob- and presents two different lines of the semantic derivation: (a) 'something that is distinct, peculiar' and (b) 'something that is / should be appropriated by the subject'. The central position in the first, older, set of derivatives belongs to the substantive osoba 'person'.
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Pope John Paul II frequently describes humans in terms of personal being. One could say that this is one of the most fundamental aspects in his teaching. This text analyses the anthropology underlying his papal teaching in the context of the modern world and modern family life. The author emphasizes that the contemporary context reflects a multifaceted  crisis  affecting  humans.  The text explores a core aspect of Pope John Paul II’s teaching in his vision of the family, which is the issue of how to understand the human being as a person. Fundamentally the family is presented as a communion of persons, then a person is shown as the primary determinant in family education.
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Content available remote ‘OSOBA’ – kategoria gramatyczna?
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The author states that the grammatical description of a language should be conceived in the frame of the theory: “meaning > form”. As an example to prove the adequacy of that statement she presents an outline of the semantic analysis of the grammatical category of person. The traditional grammar presents ‘person’ as an inflectional category of the verb, exponent of the formal congruency of the verbal predicate with its implied argument in the form of the nominative noun phrase. From the semantic point of view ‘person’ is the central category guaranteeing success full act of linguistic communication: it enables us to identify correctly active participants of the speech event, as also those active in the spoken of event.
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Content available remote Reflections on Epictetus’ Notion of Personhood
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Forum Philosophicum
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2014
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tom 19
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nr 1
97–106
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Epictetus’ discussion of the death of spouse and child in Encheiridion 3 raises interesting problems on the meaning of “person” in his Stoic philosophy. The author uses Epictetus’ discussion as a window into his notion of person, and weighs the strengths and weaknesses of that notion. The Stoic view of person represents an advance over pre-Stoic views. It offers us a better way to look at significant others throughout life, and helps us better to deal with their loss. Yet it falls short of being a fully satisfactory notion of person, because it does not address the fact that I am constituted as person only in relationship to others who are themselves persons.
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Content available remote Pojem osoby v diskusi o etice potratů
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EN
Much of the recent debate over the moral permissibility of abortion focuses on the question of whether the foetus is or is not a person, i.e. the only entity endowed with moral rights including the right to life. The article traces this line of thought in several key figures in the debate (Thomson, Tooley, Warren and Brody). However, I consider this way of argumentation as both inappropriate and misleading; in the second half of the article I offer arguments against using the concept of person in this debate.
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Content available remote Wojtyła on Persons and Consciousness
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Forum Philosophicum
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2014
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tom 19
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nr 1
43–60
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Karol Wojtyła developed an interesting model of human consciousness. He also demonstrated how vital the role is that consciousness plays in the process of becoming a person. His project encompasses such theses as the following: that consciousness is not a semi-autonomous subject, that it is not an intentional power, that it has both a receptive and an experiencing / interiorizing character, and that it must be distinguished from knowledge and self-knowledge. In this paper, I try to show how all these claims fit together. I also examine some of his more controversial theses—especially his claim about the non-intentionality of consciousness.
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The notion “person” has been of great importance in European civilization for several centuries. The formation of its content range was conditioned by the philosophical, theological, and cultural influences of Europe’s two major civilization centres, namely the Byzantine Empire and the Roman Empire. The important question therefore becomes: What are the differences in the understanding of the concept of “person” between the world of the Christian East and the world of the Christian West. In search of an answer to this question, the article is a reflection on the views of an outstanding Orthodox theologian—Vladimir Lossky. For decades, his theological heritage has been inspiring both Orthodox and Catholic theologians, constituting an important point of reference in the interpretation of the Church Fathers.
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