Colon anastomosis is therapeutically challenging because multiple, usually undetectable factors influence a spectrum of repair mechanisms. We hypothesized that low molecular weight heparins, routinely administered perioperatively, may differentially affect gene expression related to colon healing. Twenty pairs of untreated and enoxaparin-treated rats underwent left-side hemicolectomy with a primary end-to-end anastomosis. Normal colon and anastomotic bowel segments were resected on day 0 and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after surgery, respectively. Serial anastomosis transverse cross-sections were evaluated microscopically and by microarray (Rat Genome 230 2.0, Affymetrix). Differentially expressed probe sets were annotated with Gene Ontology. We also examined the influence of enoxaparin on fibroblast proliferation and viability in vitro. Among the 5476 probe sets, we identified differential expression at each healing time point, yielding 79 subcategories. Most indicated genes were involved in wound healing, including multicellular organismal development, locomotory behavior, immune response, cell adhesion, inflammatory response, cell-cell signaling, blood vessel development, and tissue remodeling. Although we found no intensity differences in histological features of healing between enoxaparin-treated and control rats, treatment did induce significant expression changes during early healing. Of these changes, 83 probe sets exhibited at least twofold changes and represented different functional annotations, including inflammatory response, regulation of transcription, regulation of apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Fibroblast culture confirmed an anti-viability effect of enoxaparin. Enoxaparin affects colon wound-related gene expression profiles, but further studies will resolve whether heparin treatment is a risk factor after intestinal surgery, at least in some patients.