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Konštantínove listy
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2023
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tom 16
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nr 2
102 - 111
EN
Present paper attempts to scrutinize the 18th-century interpretational debates between the Slovak and Hungarian proto-nationalist circles and persons about the Great Moravian past and about the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition. The article does not intend to introduce the contradicting historical narratives in detail, or analyse the righteousness of stances in light of later research results, but to focus on a special dimension of these disputes: i.e. how emotional and intellectual motives could play a role in the evolvement of identity debates. The conceptual framework of the research is that beside clear interest-motives (including personal or collective interests, as struggle for prestige or position), the feeling of being hurt by “untrue” statements could also bolster personal identification processes and inter-ethnic boundary-making processes. The paper’s general contribution to identity studies and conflict studies is that – beside interest-based motives, like struggle for power and (personal or collective) domination – emotional and cognitive motives are also relevant in nation-building, while their strong interrelatedness seems to be also evident. Methodologically, the early Slovak-Hungarian debates on Great Moravia, Svatopluk or on the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition – despite the scarcity of sources – seems to be a suitable research terrain due to the lack of institutionalized structures of nationalization; hence, bottom-up identification and boundary-making processes might be easier to detect than in later ages.
Slavica Slovaca
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2019
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tom 54
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nr 1
3 – 10
EN
The paper contains an outline explaining how the issue is described by legal-historical literature, and the author notes that the presented opinion is based only on the analogy about the development of the relationship of the ruling power and the Church in the surrounding countries of that period, or in the country that originated after the demise of Great Moravia. In the next section, the author is considering whether it is really possible to characterize the relationship of the ruling power and the Church as it is presented in the previous writings. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author presents the view that already in the years 833 – 863, in the court of the Great Moravian princes, there were educated clerics who held high positions in the state administration. This is justified by references to contemporary texts. At the same time, the author points out that there must have been a lower level Church administration in Great Moravia, governed from Passau. In the second part he presents opinions on the issue in the years 863 – 885. In this part, the author points out that the ruler of Great Moravia acted as a judge in Church and theological disputes, had competence in the appointment of bishops, provided them with means of subsistence, etc. He also tries to emphasize that secular and ecclesiastical issues overlapped also at the level of foreign contacts, including the teaching of the domestic clergy at the cleric schools established by Constantine and Methodius. The last part of the paper points to the interesting fact that the Great Moravian texts contained norms with both world and Church sanctions. In a concrete example, the author points to a possible contradiction in the practical imposition of these sanctions, trying to explain how this contradiction was being approached from the point of view of Christian philosophy.
EN
The article publishes two magic gems in private collection reputedly found in South Moravia, according to the personal information by Vilem Hruby, in the area of Stare Mesto in a context of Great Moravia. They both are of Egyptian origin and can be dated to the 3rd - 4th century A.D. One of them represents young Horus, the second with inscription probably mentions Chnoum. The authors mention parallels from Bulgaria, from the context of the activities of Methodius' pupils there.
Slavica Slovaca
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2020
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tom 55
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nr 3
427 – 434
EN
The article describes the issue of the perception of Great Moravia as a state. The author points out when the term “state” for Great Moravia was used for the first time in professional literature, as well as how other authors perceived Great Moravia, as well as what definition of state the authors used. The article further describes how the understanding of the legacy of Great Moravian history was politicized in individual periods. He points out that in the period after 1867 the question of Great Moravian history was mainly presented from the perspective of the defense of Palacký. After 1918, Great Moravia was a symbol of the historical unity of the Czechoslovak nation, and at the same time a suitable historical justification for the policy of Czechoslovakism. After 1939, Prince Pribina as the first ruler of Nitra was presented in Slovakia, and the unification of Great Moravia was presented as a violent act of aggression of the Czechs against the Slovaks. After 1948, the legacy of Great Moravia is again presented as the oldest state of Czechs and Slovaks (no longer one Czechoslovak nation). The author points out that although the conditions for the de-politicization of the perception of history occurred after 1989, this was not quite the case in Slovakia. In conclusion, the author points out in what way the perception of the history of Great Moravian statehood could be changed.
EN
St. Gorazd is undoubtedly the most important of the pupils of the Thessalonian brothers Constantine – Cyril and Methodius. In spite of this and in spite of the great interest in him from researchers, especially in the last century, we have very little concrete information about his life. He remained forgotten for centuries, with veneration and knowledge growing mainly in the last 80 years. The not clearly answered questions about Gorazd include that of his ordination as a priest and consecration as a bishop, on which we have no direct evidence. Gorazd’s priestly status is considered obvious by all experts, but some doubt his episcopal consecration, while others accept it and explain it with indirect evidence. The present article is a consideration of the question of how far we can date the priestly and episcopal consecrations of Gorazd, the first recognized saint, who originated from our territory.
EN
In the Slovak literature of National Revival, the authors writing in this period search for the historical, cultural, literary and linguistic roots of the Slovaks. The period of the Great Moravia is therefore reflected as a constituent period of Slovak history, Svätopluk being „the Slovak king“, Constantine and Methodius being the „Slovak apostles“, as can be seen mainly in the works written by Juraj Fándly (especially in his homily and in Compendiata historia gentis Slavae). During the period of National Revival, authors highlighted the national moment, but also the ethical dimension of history in identifying the exemplary characteristics and behavior of the Great Moravian personalities. The purpose of writing about the past is to influence the present, the actualizing dimension being manifested in a national and ethical interpretation of historical events.
7
Content available remote ČASOVÉ VYMEDZENIE VZNIKU VEĽKOMORAVSKÉHO NOMOKÁNONA
100%
EN
Written legal texts (so-called normative legal texts) are also indispensable for the study of the history of Great Moravia. The most extensive of them is the Great Moravian Nomocanon, which is a translation of its Byzantine original, while the author has significantly narrowed the original text. Most experts dealing with the history of Great Moravia assume that the author of the translation was Methodius himself. In this paper we try to determine when the translation of Nomocanon was conducted. The previous papers stated that the translation was carried out at the beginning of the Byzantine mission in Great Moravia. In this paper we present the hypothesis that the translation of Nomocanon was probably conducted only in the final phase of Methodius’s activity in Great Moravia. This hypothesis is supported by the timing of the necessity (and urgency) of its translation in practice, as well as by the historical events of the fight between Wiching and Methodius.
EN
Saint Methodius, a native of Thessalonica, was not only one of the leading Christian missionaries and diplomats of the 9th century, but also an active traveller. He undertook several missionary and diplomatic journeys, which are mentioned in contemporary sources. The paper analyses his journeys to the Khazars, Great Moravia, Rome and finally in 881 to Byzantium. We trace the possible routes and the times it would have taken for Methodius to complete the journeys.
9
Content available remote GUILT AND CULPABILITY IN THE LAW OF GREAT MORAVIA
88%
EN
The article describes the forms of guilt and culpability in the so-called normative texts of Great Moravia (Nomocanon, Admonitions to the Rulers and the Judicial Code for the People). The first part of the article describes the parts of the Judicial Code for the People, in which the actions are described, which we could define by modern legal understanding as intentional culpability and negligent culpability. In these provisions there are also indications of a distinction between direct and indirect intentions, and conscious and unconscious negligence. The author of the article considers in the text whether such a distinction of forms of culpability could have existed before the arrival of the Byzantine mission, or whether the distinction is the benefit of Byzantine (Roman) law for the domestic law of Great Moravia. The author also considers how these provisions have been implemented in practice. He points out that the rules in question contained a double sanction: secular and ecclesiastical sanctions, and sought to determine which of those sanctions had been imposed in practical life.
EN
The paper discusses questions related to the determination of the lifespan and functionality of wood-soil fortifications of early medieval hillforts. The paper builds on our experiences gained during nearly twenty years of observations at the archaeological open-air museum in Modrá near Velehrad in Moravia, Czech Republic. We compare our findings with other archaeological open-air museums and research concerning fortifications. The paper presents older as well as the most recent reconstructions of fortifications built in Modrá between the years 2020 and 2021. Those constructions are then compared with similar fortifications recently reconstructed on the Bojná-Valy hillfort near Topoľčany in Western Slovakia. Finally, we briefly discuss several questions concerning hillforts and their fortifications in the Great Moravian times (9th c.).
Konštantínove listy
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2016
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tom 9
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nr 1
199 – 209
EN
Cyrillic manuscripts show evidence of the Byzantine‑Slavic cultural and traditional formation and development in Slovakia, as well as in the milieu of Slovak ethnic society. From a linguistic point of view and based on the provenance of the described realia, they are an integral part of the Slovak national culture. Mentioned manuscripts thereby represent an important and integral part of the confessional identity of inhabitants of the region, although after the fall of Great Moravia, Latin cultural tradition eventually prevailed in the middle Danube region.
12
Content available remote VZŤAH PREDROMÁNSKEHO KOSTOLA NA DEVÍNE K DALMÁTSKEJ ARCHITEKTÚRE
88%
EN
The subject of the study is the structural and iconographic-iconological analysis of the ground-plan of the pre-Romanesque Great-Moravian church in Devín Castle from the 9th century. The study also attempts to define the building stages that can be identified in the building development of the ground-plan. After a critical analysis, the building can be interpreted as an early-medieval adaptation of a defined model of the Dalmatian late antique church through Dalmatian pre-Romanesque architecture. As the source, the three late-antique churches in Dalmatia used also in the early-middle ages may be identified (Bilice, Pridraga, Sutivan). The ground-plan of the Devín church may be analysed by several construction plans based on different planimetric methods of construction, from which one can be analogically applied in the plans of the three Dalmatian triconchs. The Devín church was probably constructed using a Carolingian foot. The ground-plan of the Devín church was a result of one building project, but two ground-plan elements are obviously the separate building interventions. One intervention is presented by a middle transverse foundation stripe serving as the base of the chancel screen which was a part of the original building plan. The second intervention is presented by the additional intervention in the masonry of the northern apse which can be interpreted as a rebuilding of the northern apse caused by the static disorder in the second building stage.
13
Content available remote VČASNOSTREDOVEKÉ OPASKOVÉ KOVANIA TYPU BOJNÁ. NOVÉ NÁLEZY
88%
Študijné zvesti
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2023
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tom 70
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nr 2
309 – 326
EN
The paper offers a new perspective on a series of Great Moravian belt-ends of the Bojná type, dated to the second half of the 9th c. and especially to the end of the 9th c. New finds, mainly from the Bojná-Valy hill fort, allow us to add another variant to the type and to change our view on the distribution of these belt-ends. The distribution of the belt-ends reflects the borders of the Nitra province at the end of the 9th c., as well as its central and strategic places – where troops were probably constantly present. The unique find of the Bojná type belt-end from Zalavár in Hungary can therefore be given an interesting interpretation, historically related to the Great Moravian expansion during the Svatopluk period.
14
Content available remote Středoevropský model a jeho archeologické testování
88%
EN
This study contributes to discussions about the so-called Central European Model, which is said to define the first developmental stage of the Przemyslid State. The validity of this model is verified here using selected archaeological resources from the period of Great Moravia. It is primarily based upon results from long-term research at the important Great Moravian agglomeration site at Pohansko near Breclav. This study investigates spatial settlement structures from Pohansko and their counterparts from Western Europe. The interpretation questions the validity of the Central European Model, while it simultaneously outlines some differences between Western and Central Europe in the Early Medieval Ages.
EN
The present paper endeavours to survey the historic line of the Byzantine music in the territory of Slovakia of today, focusing on the 'dark centuries' - the 10th to 14th centuries. It starts with the introduction of Byzantine culture to the Moravian State in 9th century, and includes the brief description of extant liturgical fragments dated from 10th to 15th centuries. The lack of substantial resources presses us upon relying on the indirect historical references in order to prove the presence of the Eastern faithful during the old Hungarian kingdom, thus trying to detect marginal information regarding the liturgical chant at least.
Slavica Slovaca
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2020
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tom 55
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nr 3
435 – 451
EN
When Rastislav of Moravia sent a message to the Byzantine Emperor Michael III in 863, he asked for a “bishop and teacher” in it. His intention was building an own ecclesiastical administration independent from the Bavarian church structures and strengthening his independence not only in the sphere of power but also in the ecclesiastical one. The brothers of Thessaloniki – Constantine-Cyril and Method, leaders of the Byzantine mission, were outstanding scholars, they contributed to the enormous growth of culture, education and liturgy, but they were not bishops. It was until 869 that pope as archbishop (on the request of the Prince Kocelj) ordained Method, by renewing ancient Pannonian archbishop´s seat in Syrmia (today in Serbia). The article deals with ecclesiastic – legal status of Method, that was formally archbishop of Pannonia, but he was active in the Great Moravian territory. It is devoted to the complicated issues of the relations with Bavarian church structures and to the problems of the residential church.
EN
The main objective of the article is to determine the territorial scope of the Great Moravian territory of Nitra based on an analysis of archaeological sources. Specific cultural manifestations identified in the focal area of the Danube lowland delimit the studied territory from the settlement of adjacent regions of Slovakia and from the central settled territory in the Morava River basin. An interpretation of the results supported by a comparison with written sources and linguistic data a new view of the social-political identity of the Nitra population.
18
Content available remote VEĽKOMORAVSKÁ A CYRILO-METODSKÁ TRADÍCIA V TVORBE „ŠTÚROVCOV“
88%
EN
The article reflects the relationship of the Štúr generation to Great Moravia, as the “constructing the past” seemed to be an effective tool in awakening national consciousness. As a result of the necessary narrowing of the research framework, we decided to present the issue of the application of Great Moravian realities through literary or journalistic works published in the appendix of the first Slovak political newspapers – in Orol tatranský [the Tatra Eagle]. Although interpretive penetrations into the works of Ľ. Štúr, A. Sládkovič, J. K. Viktorin and Š. Ferienčík do not exhaust the full breadth of historical reminiscences of the mentioned personalities to the introduced period, nevertheless, they document the way of reviving both traditions in accordance with the symbolism of the time. Štúr’s return to the historical roots of national life, Sládkovič’s abstraction of the fate of Great Moravia, J. K. Viktorin’s reflection on the benefits of the activities of Thessalonian brothers or the image of Nitra in Š. Ferienčík’s work are not only proof that the content focus of the contributions corresponded to the thematic targeting of the Tatra Eagle (resp. that the Great Moravian realities remained in the living memory of the Štúr generation, but that the tragic fate of Great Moravia and the subsequent history should also serve as a memento and construction of the future based on the values of Christianization activity. Despite the genre diversity of the analysed texts, the article provides a picture of the specificity of the attitude and ways of artistic representation of the same historical reality.
Slavica Slovaca
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2022
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tom 57
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nr 3
279-289
EN
The study describes the assumed form of teaching theology existing in Great Moravia as well as in the period immediately following its dissolution. The study gives an overview of the possible existence of group of scholars in Great Moravia even before the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius, with whose arrival is generally associated the building of the schools in which the future priests studied. The work highlights not only the high level of schooling for domestic clergy founded after 863, but also the fact that it is highly probable that these schools existed even after Method’s death.
EN
The Byzantine mission led by St. Constantine-Cyril and his brother St. Methodius, which reached Great Moravia in 863, had several dimensions. The central theme of this work is to look at how the message of Great Moravia and the Cyrillo-Methodian cult has been spread, mainly in the modern history of Slovakia. After establishing the Hungarian Kingdom, the relations of the local church representatives towards the Methodius‘s followers weakened significantly. By the end of the 10th century, there was again pressure aimed at eradicating the residues of their activities and influence. The Cyrillo-Methodian literary tradition came to a standstill and the application of liturgical habits introduced by the holy brothers was disrupted for a long period of time. It is commonly known that the whole era of the Slovak national revival was fuelled by the development of the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition. The cultural value cultivation of the Great Moravian figures in the religious, national, and cultural life of the Slovaks started already during the national revival and flourished in the 20th century. The intensity of spreading the cult of the Thessalonian saints has been different in various Slovak regions. Following the development of the Great Moravian era interpretations that were subject to political pressure, as well as to the limited actual knowledge, gave us the answers regarding the future orientation of the research.
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