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Human Movement
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2008
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tom 9
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nr 1
56-61
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Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple, table-graphic model of one-to-one play in soccer based on observation of cooperation of top soccer players. Basic procedures. The research material consisted of audio-visual recordings from six soccer matches played by the three top teams of the 2006 World Cup finals. The data concering one-to-one plays was entered on a special form. Offensive and defensive actions were assessed with reference to the implementation of the game's objectives and players' position in the field zones. Main findings. It has been proven that elite soccer players are most effective at intercepting the ball down the field and in other zones of the pitch. They are also very active in breaking their opponents' offensive actions in midfield. Conclusions. The models reflecting elite soccer players' efficiency in one-to-one play should constitute important references for the training of novice soccer players.
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Content available remote The Vertical Jump Height of Soccer Players after Static Overstretching
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Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of static overstretching on performing a vertical jump. Methods. A methodological model was used, using descriptive and comparative methods on 45 randomly selected under-15-year-old male soccer players. Three jump test measurements were taken over a period of several days, where the first measurement included a pre-test in order to familiarize the athletes with using a contact mat, where maximum vertical jump height was recorded as a control. The second measurement had the athletes perform a vertical jump after static overstretching of the lower limbs. The third test had the athletes perform another vertical jump with no overstretching as another control. Results. The results found a significant difference in vertical jump heights (Δ% = 34.1%, p < 0.05), with jumps performed after static overstretching to be much lower. Conclusions. The usage of such a static overstretching method negatively influences the vertical jump within the tested group of under-15 male soccer players.
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Content available remote Heroes and Villains in Uruguayan Soccer (2010-2014): A discursive Approach
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This paper proposes to discuss, through an individual case study of four athletes, the mechanisms used by the Uruguayan sports press in the discursive construction of national soccer heroes and villains in the 2010-2014 period. The article begins with a theoretically founded introduction to the processes of media construction of sports heroes and their importance in the socialization process individuals go through in any given society. Afterwards, a brief case study of the selected athletes is developed in light of this theoretical framework, focusing on the mechanisms used for discursively constructing heroes and their transformations into villains. Finally, the selected cases are summarized, underlying the media atribution of certain values and features considered socially desirable by Uruguayan society.
Human Movement
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2011
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tom 12
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nr 4
353-360
EN
Purpose. The aim of this article was to define the somatic characteristics, BMI index, age and total distance covered of football players who participated in the 2008 European Football Championships. The article also pointed to any significant interrelationships. Methods. On the basis of a game analysis system, the Castrol Performance Index, the 248 football players who participated in all 32 games of the Championships were subject to analysis based on the distance covered during the games, with the results statistically analyzed and compared with the players' somatic characteristics. In addition, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used as a non-parametric counterpart of one-way analysis of variance. Results. The highest values of the somatic characteristics such as height, body mass, age and the BMI index were found in goalkeepers. The longest distances covered during the games were attained by midfielders and side midfielders, whereas the shortest distances covered were by goalkeepers and central defenders. Larger values of height and body mass corresponded to smaller covered distances by players during the games. Conclusions. The indicated dependences, which were found among the players' age, height, body mass and covered distance during the games allows one to define the usefulness of a player in a particular team formation. The covered distance, particularly in correlation with the mentioned morphological indicators, which to a great extent are genetically conditioned, could be used as criterion towards specifying in the most accurate way which formation a particular player should play in, based on his genetic predisposition.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, aerobic exercise performance and blood lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion in regularly trained young soccer players. Sixteen male soccer players participated in this study. Mean age, stature, body mass and training age of the players were 17.4±1.2 years, 175.4±3.6 cm, 69.6±4.3 kg and 5.1±1.3 years, respectively. During the Ramadan period, all subjects voluntarily chose to follow the fasting guidelines and abstained from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset. Body composition, hydration status, dietary intake and sleep duration were assessed on four occasions: before Ramadan, at the beginning of Ramadan, at the end of Ramadan and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. On each occasion, aerobic exercise performance and blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion responses of players were also determined during an incremental running test. Repeated measures of ANOVA revealed that body mass, percentage of body fat, fat-free mass, hydration status, daily sleeping time and daily energy and macronutrient intake of players did not vary significantly throughout the study period (p>0.05). However, players experienced a small but significant decrease in skinfold thicknesses over the course of the study (p<0.05). Although ratings of perceived exertion at submaximal workloads increased during Ramadan (p<0.05), blood lactate and heart rate responses had decreased by the end of Ramadan (p<0.05). In line with these changes, peak running performance and running velocity at anaerobic threshold also improved by the end of Ramadan (p<0.05). Improvements in aerobic exercise performance with time were probably due to the effects of pre-season training program that was performed after the break of the fast (Iftar) during the month of Ramadan. The results of the present study suggest that if regular training regimen, body fluid balance, daily energy intake and sleep duration are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting does not have detrimental effects on aerobic exercise performance or body composition in young soccer players.
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Content available remote Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer
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The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997-1998 to 2006-2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is non-existent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination.
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Study aim: The aim of this study is to prove that young players who have been coached with the main focus on technical ability and player interaction, perform better when tested on physical and technical attributes. Material and methods: We examined 2 separate groups made up of 15 players each. After thorough analysis, the experimental group practiced playing forms to building up 3 vs 1 games weekly for one year. The control group did not follow this training pattern. Results: Over the course of the year there was a constant development in all aspects of the examination. Furthermore, both physical and technical attributes were significantly better . The same cannot be concluded from the analysis of the control group, in which the performance level even dropped in some aspects of the examination. Conclusion: The results show that players practicing the playing forms on a weekly basis performed better in physical and technical tests. In addition, subjective experience has also underlined the effect of the method.
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The velocity of movement and applied load affect the production of mechanical power output and subsequently the extent of the adaptation stimulus in strength exercises. We do not know of any known function describing the relationship of power and velocity and load in the bench press exercise. The objective of the study is to find a function modeling of the relationship of relative velocity, relative load and mechanical power output for the bench press exercise and to determine the intensity zones of the exercise for specifically focused strength training of soccer players. Fifteen highly trained soccer players at the start of a competition period were studied. The subjects of study performed bench presses with the load of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of the predetermined one repetition maximum with maximum possible speed of movement. The mean measured power and velocity for each load (kg) were used to develop a multiple linear regression function which describes the quadratic relationship between the ratio of power (W) to maximum power (W) and the ratios of the load (kg) to one repetition maximum (kg) and the velocity (m•s-1) to maximal velocity (m•s-1). The quadratic function of two variables that modeled the searched relationship explained 74% of measured values in the acceleration phase and 75% of measured values from the entire extent of the positive power movement in the lift. The optimal load for reaching maximum power output suitable for the dynamics effort strength training was 40% of one repetition maximum, while the optimal mean velocity would be 75% of maximal velocity. Moreover, four zones: maximum power, maximum velocity, velocity-power and strength-power were determined on the basis of the regression function.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate some selected biomechanical characteristics of lower extremity between professional soccer defenders, midfielders and strikers. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from fifteen Olympic professional soccer players; (height: 181.93 ± 7.03 cm; mass: 70.73 ± 10.85 kg; age: 20.8 ± 0.77 years), volunteered to participate in this study, using four digital video cameras. There were significant differences between midfielders and defenders in (1) lower leg angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (2) thigh angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (3) lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001), (4) thigh net moment (p ≤ 0.001), and (5) ball velocity (p ≤ 0.012). There were significant differences between midfielders and strikers in lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001). There were significant differences between strikers and defenders in; (1) lower leg angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (2) thigh angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (3) lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001), (4) thigh net moment (p ≤ 0.001), and (5) ball velocity (p ≤ 0.024). In conclusion, midfielders can perform soccer instep kicking strongly and faster than defenders and there is, however, no significant difference between midfielders and strikers, but midfielders' ball velocity is higher than strikers' ball velocity.
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Background: The purpose of this work was to present a model which shows the efficiency of the actions in the game of soccer, based on observations of 7 final tournament matches during the European Championships in 2008. The successful teams were analyzed from the quarterfinals to the final match. Activity, effectiveness and reliability, during both offensive and defensive actions, were subject to this examination.Material/Methods: The material consisted of the audio-visual records gathered from 7 matches which had been played in the final tournament in the 2008 European Championships. The gathered data was put on the special observation sheet in accordance with the Panfil's design.Results: It has been ascertained that the most effective actions are those of possessing the ball and the actions of gaining the field, while the rate of scoring goals is similar to that which had been observed during finals in other top soccer tournaments. Additionally, in the defensive actions the best players manifest higher reliability in co-operation than in individual actions.Conclusions: In the top-level competitions, group/team actions prevailed over individual ones. The examined players manifested nearly the same efficiency in scoring like those who took part in the finals of the World and continental championships. The players regarded as champions made use of various individual actions against their opponents with a ball, depending on the implemented game tasks.The models which illustrate the efficiency of actions in soccer, at the top-level competition should be used for creating ideal models which will design the game of players of lower sport competence.
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Content available remote Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players
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The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches’ assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: “kinetic finesse”; component 2: “mental strength”) was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players’ cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a reaction test (RT), a determination test (DT), a visual pursuit test (LVT), a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI), a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA), and a peripheral perception test (PP). To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019). A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 (“kinetic finesse”) was a more significant factor than component 2 (“mental strength”). Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required.
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Content available remote Using Network Metrics in Soccer: A Macro-Analysis
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The aim of this study was to propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of a team. These metrics were organised at macro-analysis levels. The interactions between teammates were collected and then processed following the analysis levels herein announced. Overall, 577 offensive plays were analysed from five matches. The network density showed an ambiguous relationship among the team, mainly during the 2nd half. The mean values of density for all matches were 0.48 in the 1st half, 0.32 in the 2nd half and 0.34 for the whole match. The heterogeneity coefficient for the overall matches rounded to 0.47 and it was also observed that this increased in all matches in the 2nd half. The centralisation values showed that there was no ‘star topology’. The results suggest that each node (i.e., each player) had nearly the same connectivity, mainly in the 1st half. Nevertheless, the values increased in the 2nd half, showing a decreasing participation of all players at the same level. Briefly, these metrics showed that it is possible to identify how players connect with each other and the kind and strength of the connections between them. In summary, it may be concluded that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches understand team’s specific properties and support decision-making to improve the sports training process based on match analysis.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the physical characteristics of soccer players according to playing level and position. A total of 305 professional male soccer players [Turkish Super League (SL) (n = 161) and Turkish First League (FL) (n = 144)] were involved in this study. All data were gathered at the beginning of preparatory period of mid-season. Height, weight, flexed and tensed upper arm and calf girths, humerus and femur biepicondylar breadths, and four skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and medial calf) were measured. Somatotypes were estimated using the Heath-Carter method. SL players were older (p≥0.002), and heavier (p≥0.007) than FL players, while height (p ≤ 0.497) was similar between SL and FL groups. There were significant differences for BW (p≥=0.000), and height (p≥0.000) between playing positions. Goalkeepers were taller (p≥0.000), and heavier (p≥0.001) than other players. Midfielders were shorter (p≥0.013) than other players, however, they were lighter than forwards (p≥0.008). The mean somatotype of the overall players was 2.4-4.8-2.3 (0.9-0.8-0.7) in SL and was 3.0-4.5-2.6 (0.9-0.9-0.8) in FL. SL players were more mesomorphic (p≥0.01), less endomorphic (p≥0.000), and less ectomorphic (p≥0.001) than FL players. Except for goalkeepers, there were significant differences in paired means between whole somatotype means of the SL and FL according to playing positions. The results of the present study demonstrate that both physical characteristics and somatotype of players were significantly different between playing levels and positions. Although the somatotype of soccer players in both levels was dominated by the mesomorph category, players at the higher playing level were more mesomorphic, and less endomorphic and ectomorphic than players at the lower level at all playing positions.
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Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and technical constructs of futsal set the game apart from other indoor soccer games, finding that futsal players share a number of morphological similarities with handball players.
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Purpose. The aim of this article was to analyze the relationship between tactical behavior and affective decision making of U-17 youth soccer players. Methods. The sample was comprised of 154 participants meeting the study inclusion criteria. Players played 4-min games on four-person teams (including goalkeeper) on a small-sided soccer field. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to determine the defensive tactical actions performed by players according to five different tactical principles. A total of 6140 defensive tactical actions were recorded. Their affective decision-making was measured by a computerized card task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results. Significant negative correlation was found between players’ learning curve and the incidence of actions based on the principle of concentration. Less impulsive players presented a lower incidence of actions tied with the principle of concentration in comparison with more impulsive players. Conclusions. The findings suggest that, in the defensive phase, players who are less impulsive decision makers may benefit from more secure and stable defensive styles.
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Background. The aim of the study was evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles, bite force, and occlusal force distribution of professional soccer players after training and detraining resulting from the lockdown that occurred during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Material and methods. Twelve male soccer players (age, 19-34 years) were subjected to respiratory muscle strength analysis by examining the maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, maximum molar bite force (right and left sides), and occlusal force distribution of the first permanent molars. Comparisons of variables after training and detraining were analyzed using the paired-sample t-test (p < 0.05), and the correlation between respiratory variables was measured using the Pearson test (p < 0.05). Results. There were no significant differences in the bite force and occlusal force distributions after training and detraining. The correlation results showed moderate positivity between the maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures during the training period. Conclusions. The results suggest that when soccer players strengthen the inspiratory muscles, they also strengthen the expiratory muscles and that detraining does not impact the athlete's organic function, especially the respiratory muscle function and the forces of the occlusal contact of the first permanent molars.
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Physical differences associated with birth-date among athletes of the same selection year have been described as the Relative Age Effect (RAE). The aim of this study was to examine whether RAE still exists in soccer and running sport disciplines as well as to evaluate its progress among different gender, age, and sport context and if it has an effect on performance. Using official archives of the international sports’ associations (World Athletics-UEFA), birthdates and performance were collected for 7226 athletes (4033 males; 3198 females) who participated in soccer and running events. A chi-square test was used to assess differences between observed and expected birth date distributions. The study showed an over-representation of athletes born in the first quarter of the selection year for both soccer and running events. RAE is more obvious in younger age groups and in sports that require higher explosive speed, strength, power and anaerobic capacity such as soccer and short distance sprints. It was also found that RAE is associated with performance. In conclusion, athletes of younger age groups with greater biological age have a physical advantage in explosive sports (i.e. soccer and short distance running) that probably does not predict their future development.
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The aim of the present study was the analysis of match activities of full-backs from selected European national soccer leagues. The study sample comprised 30 full-backs playing in the autumn round of the 2014/15 season from five European national top-tier leagues: English Premier League, Spanish Primera Division, German Bundesliga, Russian Priemjer Liga and Italian Serie A. The performance of full-backs (left-back and right-back) from each selected team was analyzed using a professional match analysis system OptaPro which tracks every possible type of ball touch and on the ball action in match covered by a rigid set of definitions. The data for analysis included the total number of passes, total number of crosses, and total number of ball touches performed by the fullbacks in three zones of the pitch: attack, midfield and defense. The study results showed that the full-backs from the Spanish Primera Division executed the highest number of passes and crosses as well as ball touches in the attack zone. They also performed the lowest number of passes in the midfield and defense zones, in which the highest percentage of passes was achieved by the full-backs from the German league teams. The study indicates that in modern soccer defenders must possess a high level of offensive skills that can be necessary in the last stage of a team’s attack.
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In the following article, the author discusses the connections between the worlds of music and football, how they used to look in the past decades and how they look in the modern times. He refers to the sociological studies that try to explain so close connections between these two different worlds. He addresses stadium chants, which, in his opinion, should be treated as a phenomenon that is underestimated in the public debate when the subject of collective music performances is covered. He shows, by the example of Poland and England, the differences of the fans’ musical customs, depending on the country. Another important element of the paper are examples of the national anthems’ huge meaning for the national football teams’ matches. Author cites musical compositions inspired by football and tells stories of the songs that became the fans’ informal anthems. He shows many figures that connect the concert halls with the dressing rooms of the most important stadiums in the world – musicians that love football and footballers who have exceptional musicalknowledge or even start they own musical career. Moreover, the author describes the new ways of using music in the modern football in order to change football games into the impressive shows that engage all senses of the spectators.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a regular pre-season training on the aerobic performance and the blood antioxidant defense capacity in soccer players from the Polish Premier League club (n=19) and IVth League team (n=15). The players participated in an incremental treadmill running exercise to volitional fatigue twice (i.e., at the beginning (Trial A) and the end (Trial B) of the pre-season spring training). In venous blood samples, taken at rest and 3 min post-test, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, GR) and concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, tocopherols, retinol, uric acid) and malondialdehyde as a lipid peroxidation biomarker were measured. With the aim of between-group comparisons and possible conclusions on training-induced changes in the capacity of the blood antioxidant defense, the POTAX index was calculated as a sum of standardized activities of antioxidant enzymes and concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants.The results of the present study indicate that the players from the Premier League club were characterized by only slightly higher maximal oxygen uptake rates, the differences compared to IVth League team, as assessed in both trials, were statistically insignificant. Participation in the pre-season training resulted in a moderate improvement of aerobic performance, although only a few players were characterized by VO2max comparable to the international-class elite performers. No distinct differences were observed in the level of aerobic performance between higher- and lower-classified players.Pre-season training led to an improvement in the global blood antioxidant capacity expressed in terms of POTAOX indices, although the changes in the activities and concentrations of individual components of the antioxidant system were less pronounced. Training-induced level of antioxidant conditioning was higher among the Premier League players, which may be related to differences in the training schedule and nutritional preparation of the athletes.
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