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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely accepted as a causative agent of cervical cancer. The distribution and prevalence of HPV types depend on geographic region and demographic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of various HPV types and the outcome of cytological examination. Cervical smears were obtained from 125 women from southern Poland: low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) — 44, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) — 12, cervical carcinoma — 27 and 42 women without abnormality in cytology as a control group. DNA was extracted from the smears and broad-spectrum HPV DNA amplification and genotyping was performed with the SPF 10 primer set and reverse hybridisation line probe assay (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping, Innogenetics). HPV DNA was detected in approximately 72% cases, more frequently in women with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical carcinoma than in the control group (P <0.0005). The most frequent type found was HPV 16 (37%), followed by HPV 51 (28%) and HPV 52 (17%). A single HPV type was detected in 51% positive cases, more frequently in cervical cancer specimens. Multiple HPV infection was dominant in women with LSIL and normal cytology. Prevalence of HPV 16 increased with the severity of cervical smear abnormality. For women HPV 16 positive, the relative risk (odds ratio) of the occurrence of HSIL and cervical cancer versus LSIL was 14.4 (95% CI, 3.0–69.2; P=0.001) and 49.4 (95% CI, 6.5–372.8; P<0.001), respectively. Genotyping of HPV will allow better classification of women with cervical abnormalities into different risk groups and could be useful in therapy.
 Cervical carcinogenesis is a complex problem with papillomavirus widely accepted as a causative agent. Integration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) of the high-risk type into the host cell genome is one of the major contributing factors to cervical malignant transformation. In this study, the correlation of CMV, EBV, HSV-1, HSV-2, HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections with the physical status of the HPV genome in cervical cancer and precancerous cervical lesions was investigated in sixty HPV-16-positive women. Cervical secretion samples were submitted to DNA extraction and analyzed by PCR. HPV-16 DNA was confirmed in genotyping with the reverse hybridization line probe assay. Multiplex PCR with specific primers for the E2/E6 genes was used to assess the viral integration status of HPV-16. Our results show that CMV DNA was more frequently present in samples with mixed forms of HPV-16 than in the episomal form (P < 0.025). Such a correlation was also observed in the case of EBV (P < 0.005). The presence of CMV resulted in a six-fold (OR 6.069; 95% CI 1.91-19.22; P = 0.002), while EBV caused a seven-fold (OR 7.11; 95% CI 1.70-29.67; P = 0.007) increase in the risk of the integrated or mixed HPV-16 genome occurrence. Our data suggest that coinfection with herpesviruses, especially CMV and EBV, may be involved in the integration of the HPV-16 genome and may contribute to the development of cervical cancer.
Przy użyciu metod hybrydyzacji in situ i PCR in situ badano liczbę komórek zakażonych latentnie dzikim szczepem wirusa HSV-1 oraz jego mutantem o osłabionej reaktywacji. Dla obu szczepów liczba komórek, w których wykrywano genom wirusa była bardzo zbliżona. Natomiast liczba komórek Z dużą ilością DNA w przypadku mutanta była znacznie mniejsza w porównaniu z dzikim szczepem wirusa.
The aim of the study was to detect the number of latently infected cells with wild type virus and with mutant with reduced reactivation. Using PCR in situ method we established, that the number of cells containing genome of these viruses do not differ especially between them. The number of cells with LAT expression is significantly reduced in the ganglia infected with mutant with impaired reactivation as we showed using in situ hybridization. Based on the observations of other autors, that high expression of LATs takes place in cells with high copy number of viral DNA our results showed, that after infection of mice with mutant with reduced reactivation less cells contain high copy number of viral DNA than after infection with wild type KOS. We suggest that impaired reactivation of an ICP22 mutant occurs as a result of reduced number of cells with copy number of viral DNA.
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