Nowa wersja platformy, zawierająca wyłącznie zasoby pełnotekstowe, jest już dostępna.
Przejdź na https://bibliotekanauki.pl
Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Lata help
Autorzy help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 65

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 4 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  tuberculosis
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 4 next fast forward last
1
Content available Immune response gene polymorphisms in tuberculosis
100%
EN
Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), remains a leading public health problem in most parts of the world. Despite the discovery of the bacilli over 100 years ago, there are still many unanswered questions about the host resistance to TB. Although one third of the world's population is infected with virulent M.tb, no more than 5-10% develop active disease within their lifetime. A lot of studies suggest that host genetic factors determine the outcome of M.tb-host interactions, however, specific genes and polymorphisms that govern the development of TB are not completely understood. Strong evidence exists for genes encoding pattern recognition receptors (TLR, CD14), C-type lectins, cytokines/chemokines and their receptors (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, MCP-1, MMP-1), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters (SLC11A1). Polymorphisms in these genes have a diverse influence on the susceptibility to or protection against TB among particular families, ethnicities and races. In this paper, we review recent discoveries in genetic studies and correlate these findings with their influence on TB susceptibility.
EN
We report a case of rare solitary pancreatic tuberculoma. 70 years old woman admitted to hospital in order to conduct diagnostics of a tumor located in the head of the pancreas. All symptoms pointed at pancreatic cancer, but histopathological examinations were inconclusive. Additionally, there were no clinical signs or symptoms of tuberculosis in the lungs. X-ray of the chest showed no abnormalities. The patient denied tuberculosis in the medical interview. There were no bacilli in the sputum. During exploratory laparotomy, the samples of tissue have been taken for pathomorphological examination. The microscopic image caused suspicion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis etiology, which was confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. In recent years, tuberculosis has become more and more common in Europe, which is why the described case can be a guide for doctors to help to avoid diagnostic errors and speed up the treatment process.
EN
Introduction. Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck. Hijab is a head cover worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any adult male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head, neck and chest. It is strictly forbidden to Muslim woman to unveil any single hair of her head, so they use many pins around the head to fix their Hijab. Often, while using pins they are self-pricked. Aim. The main aim of our work is to reveal a new cause of lymphadenopathy, which is not known till now. Material and methods. Retrospective study during the past five years among seventy-five female outpatients, visited our Oral and Maxillofacial clinic in dental department. Our data was collected according to medical history of patients; all female patients with cervical lymphadenopathy were using (A hijab). Results. Data collected of 75 female patients. Lymphadenopathy causes were various. Most of these causes resulted from nonspecific lymphadenitis (67 patients), 4 tuberculosis, 2 lymphoma, 2 cat scratch disease. Aetiology of 67 nonspecific lymphadenitis was 40 patients of dental cause, 10 of sore throat, 7 of acne vulgaris, 3 of mild facial injuries, and 7 of (Hijab pin pricks). Conclusion. Hijab pin prick cervical lymphadenitis in Islamic communities is not uncommon and, unexplained cervical lymphadenitis should be considered as potential cause
EN
A correct preoperative diagnosis of gall-bladder tuberculosis is exceptionally unusual in the absence of pathognomic features both on clinical presentation and on imaging. Herein we present a case of 50 year female who was operated with a provisional diagnosis of gall-bladder malignancy and was found to have tuberculosis of gall-bladder on histopathology
PL
Artykuł przedstawia życie i działalność badawczą Eugenii Piaseckiej-Zeylandowej, wybitnej znawczyni problematyki prątka gruźlicy, docent Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego. Dla historii medycyny szczególną wartość mają informacje o jej ostatnich latach życia.
EN
The article describes Eugenia Piasecka-Zeylandowa, her life and research on the tubercle bacillus. Piasecka-Zeylandowa, reader of Poznan University, was an outstanding expert of issues of tuberculosis and BCG vaccination. This article provides information on her last years
7
Content available Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis
80%
EN
Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the oldest infections known to mankind. Of all infectious diseases, tuberculosis causes the most fatalities of any infection. The incidence of tuberculosis on the rise due to the increased prevalence of HIV infection. The incidence of drug resistance strains of mycobacterium is also on the rise. When the mycobacterium is resistant to both INH and rifampicin it is called multi drug resistant tuberculosis. There is a primary and an acquired type of drug resistance. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is a not only a problem for the patient but also for society at large. The treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis requires an entirely different approach. Aim. In this review, we are going to describe the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, investigations and treatment of multi drug resistant tuberculosis. Material and methods. Analysis of the current literature. Results. Genetic factors, previous treatment, and other factors predisposes the onset of drug resistance. By early detection and prevention of spread of drug resistant strains we can prevent the spread of resistant strains. Conclusion. Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a very complex and dangerous problem. We have to prevent the development and spread of MDRTB. Good quality drugs should be used and made available to all sections of the population. Enhancing the National tuberculosis programs is the best way to attain an effective way to control this menace.
XX
The emergence of resistance to first-line drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB) has become a significant public health concern and an obstacle in implementation of effective TB control activities globally. In India, Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) introduced the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT) services to address the needs of MDR-TB patients. To execute the plan with perfection, RNTCP has devised MDR suspect criteria – A, B, and C so that gradually PMDT services can be extended to the whole country. These criteria were framed to run in tandem with the strengthening of the laboratory services so that the existing certified laboratories can carry out the culture and DST services without being overburdened. Altogether, RNTCP is committed for the strengthening and capacity building of its resources to offer culture and DST services right at the time of diagnosis.
EN
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a major global health problem, causing an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.1 million deaths during 2010. The role of private sector in countering this global problem cannot be underestimated. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of two months duration (February – March 2013) was conducted among all the clinical teaching faculty of various departments of a private Medical College in Kancheepuram district. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was designed after thoroughly studying the Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) training modules (Modules 1-4). All the study participants were administered the questionnaire after obtaining their informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 51 study participants only 4(7.8%) were trained in RNTCP. Almost 28(54.9%) participants wrongly responded that three sputum examinations are recommended for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Approximately, half 25(49%) of the clinicians could not correctly ascertain the duration of treatment of TB . Conclusions: As the private sector plays a significant role in diagnosis of a major proportion of TB cases, the RNTCP cannot afford to disregard this sector. The study findings demonstrate wide gaps in knowledge about RNTCP guidelines among clinical faculties. The findings of the study should be an eye-opener for the health policy makers and program managers. Need of the hour is to train all private sector doctors in RNTCP and motivate them to comply with RNTCP guidelines.
10
80%
EN
Tuberculosis(TB) is one of the most common infections affecting the population in the developing countries. With the rising human immunodeficiency(HIV) infection its incidence is on a rise even in the developed countries. Pulmonary TB is the commonest form of infection, However multiple extrapulmonary sites have also been reported. Spleen is thought to be a rare organ involved in this infection. Various presentations of the splenic TB have been reported in literature.The definitive diagnosis of this is essentially formulated on the post splenectomy specimen. A consensus statement based on the available case reports is lacking. The authors are providing an insight into this form of extrapulmonary TB after reviewing the available literature.
EN
Several 1-(chloro, fluoro, dichloro or difluorophenyl)-4-nitroimidazoles and their 2-methyl derivatives have been prepared by the reaction of respectively substituted anilines with 1,4-dinitroimidazoles via a degenerated imidazole ring transformation. The structures of the obtained products were characterized by spectros copy and/or by X-ray analysis. Most of the products have been tested as My cobacterium tuberculosis inhibitors.
EN
Private letters are the least researched genre of autobiographical writings. Irrespective of this fact, letters can indeed offer abundant research material about the ailing person’s perceptions of the disease and how he/she depicts this in writing. The article dwells upon the depiction of disease, based on the letters by Ilmi Kolla (1933–1954), using the concept of (auto)pathography as an analytical means. The focus is on how the illness is being textualised in letters and how the epistolary genre affects such a depiction. Ilmi Kolla’s letters reflect the progress of her disease, presenting this from the author’s viewpoint, yet adapting it according the addressees – e.g., Ilmi Kolla’s letters to her mother are written in a more optimistic tone regarding her illness than the ones to poet Debora Vaarandi expressing greater concern. The letters reveal various facets of the disease and her state of mind with regard to the illness, presenting a picture of sanatorium and hospital treatment. In line with the growing severity of Ilmi Kolla’s disease, the illness becomes gradually more visible in her letters, encompassing increasing textual space. Thus, the ailment has become one of the main topics in I. Kolla’s letters sent from the hospital during the last six months of her life. The fact that letters tend to be fragmentary texts separated from each other by a temporal-spatial distance becomes evident in the narrative of disease constructed by the letters. Although such an illness narrative lacks coherence intrinsic of a traditional linear autobiographic text, such a life history or a diary, an epistolary story of an illness can be studied from the viewpoint of auto-pathography as the letters create an autobiographic description of the illness. As unpublished texts, letters can both reflect and oppose the discourses of the time. The depiction of the disease, and that of an ailing body, revealed in Ilmi Kolla’s letters, functions as a counter-discourse to the body image of the Stalinist era, which highlighted a healthy, strong and powerful female body. As such, the reflection of the disease in the letters actually brings out the cultural and gender-wise meanings related to the disease, highlighting the illness as a cultural construct.
EN
Background. Unfinished tuberculosis (TB) treatment has slowly but surely become an unexpected event in the disease’s development into drug-resistant TB. Developing countries, mostly comprised of Asian and Eastern European countries, including Indonesia, have been overwhelmed in preventing drug-resistant TB outcomes and have also failed to avoid the development of this disease. Objectives. This review discusses the current issue of an unfinished first-line TB treatment strategy in primary care in Indonesia, presenting some relevant strategies in developing countries. Material and methods. A narrative review approach conducted on all existing evidence in selected scientific bibliographic sources. The researchers defined the keywords based on the research question as a search strategy. Results. Scarce resources and limited access, alongside national policy on TB control and management, contribute in different ways to impede first-line TB treatment in Indonesia. Empowerment of TB patients and their families are considered the best ways to increase awareness on TB medication in a low- to middle-income setting. The role of the hospital and private practitioner networks in the treatment and management of TB patients is essential for developing active-case-finding-approach programs for TB suspects in primary care in an Indonesian setting. Contrarily, the potential misunderstandings in TB treatment have led to peculiar events affected by poor surveillance systems for TB investigation contacts to prevent TB incidences in large populations. Conclusions. This study addressed the barrier of all stakeholders, particularly primary care, to achieve the Indonesian government’s goals of TB elimination by 2030 and zero TB findings by 2050
PL
In the second half of the 19th century, social development based on science, technological innovation, rationalism and capitalist economy presents itself as full of promise insofar as it proclaims the upcoming progress of civilization. The downside of this process is the increase in crime, massive neurosis, various forms of moral disorder, and the epidemics of somatic diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Consequently, the perception of the new generation as degenerate is actually the way to articulate anxiety in the culture of the time. Croatian literature at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century frequently refers to illness, bodies burdened by drives, and to sick, tense or perverted minds. The paper, therefore, reads tuberculosis as a metaphor for the discontent and fear that permeate the contemporary Croatian society due to, for instance, the failure of the traditional concept of identity, changed gender roles, frequent sexual transgressions, increased mortality and generally due to the inefficiency of modernization processes in solving numerous social problems and crises.
EN
On the basis of correspondence between Franz Kafka and Robert Klopstock, which was recently published by the author, this study presents the last years and days in the life of Franz Kafka, his connections with his family and friends and particularly with Klopstock, a medical student, who became acquainted with Kafka in 1921 at the Matliary sanatorium in the Tatras and with whom Kafka formed his last great friendship in life. Klopstock, who was himself literarily active, was very close to Kafka in the last years of his life; both were brought together by their intellectual interests. Kafka endeavoured to help Klopstock even materially, while Klopstock selflessly accompanied the writer in the last weeks of his life. This study also shows how classic medical ideas used in the treatment conflicted with Kafka’s own ideas and the efforts of his mistress Dora Diamantová, who advocated “natural cures”.
EN
Bronchoscopy was introduced into clinical practice over 100 years ago. Due to technological advances, diagnostic capabilities of current bronchoscopy are not limited to the trachea and proximal bronchi but also include the peripheral airways as well as various anatomical structures located outside the bronchi. A wide range of available techniques that include bronchoalveolar lavage, protected microbiological brush, transbronchial biopsy of the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes makes bronchoscopy useful in diagnosing various lower respiratory tract infections. For example, the collection of high quality biological samples for microbiological examination plays a crucial role when treating patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Bronchoscopy may provide the samples directly from the site of infection. In immunocompromised hosts bronchoscopy is routinely used as the diagnostic tool in lower respiratory tract infections. Due to implementation of novel therapies, the number of immunocompromised patients is steadily increasing, hence there are growing needs for effective diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infections. In the specific group of lung transplant recipients, bronchoscopy play a crucial role in monitoring the rejection process and also in differentiating between the rejection and pulmonary infections. Bronchoscopy is also useful in diagnosing tuberculosis or nontuberculous pulmonary infections. This particularly refers to patients who are unable to produce sputum for microbiological examination.
EN
This article discusses the Polish doctors’ views on the issue of smallpox vaccine and tuberculosis vaccine. The cognitive aim of the study was to present the history of introducing both vaccines on the territory of Europe, show the Polish doctors’ opinions on this background and catch the similarities and differences in attitudes to both vaccines. Important factor is that smallpox vaccine was introduced before formulating the standard of microbiology, whereas tuberculosis vaccine was introduced after formulating this standard. Smallpox vaccine was introduced on the territory of Poland in 1801. Thanks to its effectiveness, the vaccine became a regular part of the prevention of infectious diseases. Polish doctors have frequently taken the subject of vaccination in periodicals, writing not only about its advantages and values, but also about many issues related to it. Tuberculin was accepted by the medical community as a revelation and miracle drug. However, after several months of trials, it exposed its imperfections, such as some complications (deterioration of the patient’s condition, death) and no cases of complete cure. For these reasons tuberculin was criticized by doctors and withdrawn from use.
EN
This paper considers the discipline of palaeopathology, how it has developed, how it is studied, and what limitations present challenges to analysis. The study of disease has a long history and has probably most rapidly developed over the last 40-50 years with the development of methods, and particularly ancient pathogen DNA analysis. While emphasizing that palaeopathology has close synergies to evolutionary medicine, it focuses then on three ‘case studies’ that illustrate the close interaction people have had with their environments and how that has impacted their health. Upper and lower respiratory tract disease has affected sinuses and ribs, particularly in urban contexts, and tuberculosis in particular has been an ever present disease throughout thousands of years of our existence. Ancient DNA methods are now allowing us to explore how strains of the bacteria causing TB have changed through time. Vitamin D deficiency and ‘phossy jaw’ are also described, both potentially related to polluted environments, and possibly to working conditions in the industrial period. Access to UV light is emphasized as a preventative factor for rickets and where a person lives is important (latitude). The painful stigmatizing ‘phossy jaw’ appears to be a condition related to the match making industries. Finally, thoughts for the future are outlined, and two key concerns: a close consideration of ethical issues and human remains, especially with destructive analyses, and thinking more about how palaeopathological research can impact people beyond academia.
first rewind previous Strona / 4 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.