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EN
The request of recognition is nowadays being raised under strongly varying conditions, as in the name of minorities, collective identities or within feminism. Still growing emphasis on the need of recognition is based on the assumption of the certain links existing between recognition and identity, where the identity is used to specify human self-understanding. The first part of the study tries to follow the argumentation in support of the social and cultural recognition theory. While interpreting this theory, the authoress focuses on the works of contemporary influential recognition theory of the philosophers, namely Ch. Taylor and A. Honneth. The second part of the study explores the relationship between the recognition of the collective identities and the ideal of individual autonomy.
EN
In the context of the various ethical theories the concept of autonomy achieves various meanings. The aim of the paper is to show, how the idea of autonomy established itself in a moral philosophy. It pays attention also to the different conceptions of autonomy: beginning with its understanding as the highest principle in I. Kant and J. Rawls up to the conceptions, in which the autonomy is the basic condition of authenticity (the discussions of virtues and ideals by Ch. Tylor and B. Williams). Attention is paid also to the objections against underlining the importance of autonomy.
EN
The objective of the paper is to examine the question, in what sense does the idea of humans as the self-interpreting beings modify the understanding of ethics, namely, if the idea of self-interpretation changes the understanding humans as the moral beings. Can the will to define oneself as a member of a moral community be seen as the background of moral behavior, or is the moral dimension inseparably connected with the human identity? The resolution of the first question can show us the appropriate approach to the problem of the nature of the morals. Tylor's interpretation of the idea of self-interpretation will serve as the argumentation basis. His works can be namely taken as perhaps the most reasonable and systematic explanation of how to understand ethics in our days.
EN
Due to remarkable transformations of the social reality, the concept of justice has been rediscovered in political discussions at the beginning of the 21st century. One of the objectives of the paper is to present Miller's model of a fair distribution as articulated in his book 'Principles of Social Justice' (1999). In this model the communitarian justification of the principles of social justice as well as their subject-matters are reformulated. Another objective of the paper is to show the relevance of this approach in solving social problems represented by hypothetical local situations.
EN
The paper examines some of the ethical questions inherent in social work. Its focus is on three main questions: 1. why should one abide moral norms i.e. what urges one to act within the limits of a certain morality? 2. How are the sources and forms of the good to be distributed? 3. Which acts are considered to be valuable, good and desirable? It is the author's conviction that contrary to other professions, in social work, which is engaged with the excluded, discriminated, and marginalized, defining its objectives as well as their accomplishment are closely related to moral and political values.
EN
Strong evaluation as a model of practical reasoning is an attractive alternative to the utilitarian as well as Kantian proceduralism. It makes possible the legitimization of the specific moral claims. Furthermore, the motivation of agency is taken into account in their justification. It enables us to show the meaning of values and evaluation in human life. The paper tries to answer the questions such as: What does strong evaluation refer to? What is its nature? What is its role in human life? What is its relevance for ethics? The authoress draws upon Tylor's conception of strong evaluation, comparing it with Laitinen's reinterpretation of the latter.
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