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EN
The authoress presents new idioms containing a word 'kapelusz', belonging into two families based on phrases:' wyciagnal kogos/cos jak krolika z kapelusza' and 'ktos chodzi z kapeluszem' (someone pull out something like a rabbit from a hat / someone is walking with a hat). She analyses metaphorical motivation of the idioms referring to two schematically imagined situations, interpreted as a source of the conventionalised metaphorical expressions. She also presents syntactic classification of the idioms and defines the scope of their variantivity. The results of the study may be used in lexicography.
EN
The transforming Polish reality entails changes in a way of constructing media messages and opens the path to unhindered, free expression. The language of those messages seems to be heading towards greater colloquialization and constructing a conventional vision of the world, the example of which is tabloid press. The content analysis of two Polish tabloids — “Fakt” and “Super Express” — showed that in constructing the messages authors willingly use idiomatic expressions, often introducing innovations to their structure. Idioms appear in titles and leads, where their task is to attract readers’ attention, as well as in main bodies, where they are supposed to strengthen the message. The analysis confirmed the thesis that using unsophisticated, clichéd expressions (which are most numerous in the texts), one can create a vision of the world appealing to many recipients, which in turn is reflected in cited research on the readership of this type of press. Drawing on Polish phraseology is a domain not only of the authors, but also recipients of the message. Taking a closer look at the comments placed under certain texts on Internet tabloids’ websites allows one to notice the tendency of Polish language users to incorrectly change the components of idioms or use them in a wrong context.
PL
W artykule jest analizowana semantyka i podstawy funkcjonowania w kulturze bułgarskiej frazeologizmu Bóg wysoko, car daleko. Autorka zwraca szczególną uwagę na drugą część frazemu, ponieważ w kulturze bułgarskiej – jak we wszystkich kulturach chrześcijańskich – utożsamienie Boga z Dobrem jest oczywiste, natomiast utożsamienie cara z Dobrem może wydawać się nieuzasadnione. Autorka analizuje sześć modeli semantycznych tego frazemu w czterech kontekstach historyczno-kulturowych: (1) Car daleko a realna instytucja carska; (2) Car daleko a relacja Bóg – car; (3) Car daleko a obraz cara w kulturze ludowej; (4) Car daleko a postacie historii bułgarskiej. Na zakończenie przytoczone zostają przykłady współczesnej politycznej aktualizacji frazeologizmu, związane z powrotem z emigracji cara Symeona i pełnieniem przez niego funkcji premiera bułgarskiego rządu.
EN
The article deals with the semantics and the cultural background of the Bulgarian phraseological unit 'God is high, the tsar is far away'. Special attention is paid to its second part because in Bulgarian culture, similarly to all Christian cultures, the identification of God with Goodness is rather obvious, but that of the tsar with goodness may seem unjustified. An analysis is carried out of six semantic models of the phraseological unit in four historical-cultural contexts: (1) the tsar is far away vs. the actual institution of the tsar; (2) the tsar is far away vs. the relationship between God and the tsar; (3) the tsar is far away vs. the image of the tsar in folk culture; (4) the tsar is far away vs. Bulgarian historical figures. The article concludes with examples of contemporary political realization of the unit, connected with the return of tsar Symeon from abroad and his position as the prime minister in the Bulgarian government.
EN
Phraseology is the immanent part of every living language. It is the repository in which cultural and spiritual wealth of every nation is kept. Phraseological units are also frequent expression means that enable metaphoric, brief and truthful verbalization in the process of social communication. Their operation determines the level of Slovak and foreign language knowledge. The text book Phraseology and the manual Slovak-Hungarian dictionary with phraseology exercises are effective teaching aids containing not only theoretical knowledge from Phraseology and illustrative examples from a living language, but also the number of practical tasks. Their use in the process of education significantly participates on gaining language and communication competence.
5
Content available remote K základním aspektům obecné frazeologie
80%
EN
The article concentrates on basic aspects of general phraseology. With regards to contemporary discussions on phraseology, it describes and with the help of German-Czech examples documents three trends in the interpretation of general phraseology: phraseology in narrow, wider and the widest sense of word. At the same time, it classifies three appropriate ways in understanding phraseology units. It also deals with the qualities and components of elementary phraseology units and it presents some metaphorical composites, terminological and onymic word connections, colloquials, nomination stereotypes, verb-nominal structures, phrasal structures and texts with fixed forms.
EN
The objective of the following article was to study the modified meaning of idioms based on three semantic modifications of figurative expressions that is violation of semantic compatibility, explicit reference to lexical components and neutralising the figurative meaning.
7
Content available remote Czeskie związki frazeologiczne z zapożyczeniami z zakresu mody i kosmetyki
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Bohemistyka
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2010
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tom 10
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nr 1
39-66
EN
The author describes the development of teaching Czech for foreigners from 1989 to present. She depicts the main milestones of development – the reflection of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, reference level descriptions for Czech as a foreign language, etc. In order to present the situation of Czech as a foreign language in the Czech Republic she also describes the two concepts of teaching Czech for foreigners – one reflecting and the other not reflecting the prerequisites of the learner.
EN
Representation and placing of negation together with a construction of clauses and order of the sentential components belong to main indicators of separation and idiomacy of the phraseology regarded in this paper. The author analyses Slovak phraseological fund and describes types of sayings involving negation and defines their typology.
EN
This paper aims introducing the Cognitive linguistics notions of mental image and concept applied to Spanish and Polish phraseology with human body parts. Over the next pages the author briefly outlines the interrelation between both terms as well as their role in grounding meaning extensions. He also considers the role of meaning content and its cognitive properties: embodiment, experience and visualization in particular.
EN
The author notes that phraseology in the Slovenská reč journal has been investigated with small interruptions from the beginning of its publication to the present. The author considers the 1950s to be the breakthrough period for the presentation of phraseology in Slovenská reč, when both the previous results of domestic research in this field were summarized (papers by V. Budovičová and E. Smiešková in 1954) and the new (Vinogradovian) concept of phraseology began to be systematically applied (studies by J. Mihál in 1959 and by F. Kočiš in 1961). At the same time, the author observes that a relatively vast body of Slovak research in the field of phraseology has been published in Slovenská reč.
EN
This article is a continuation of the discussion on grammatical characteristics of the Polish verbal components, understood as elements of phraseological units. The subject of the work is a comparison of collocations containing a pair of equivalent verbal components. The research demonstrated an interesting grammatical regularity between inflection and syntactic features. The verbal components which have different forms in collocations, including personal forms, have typical functions of a verb, e.g. constitute a sentence. The components which have only one form – even identical with a personal form – do not function as finite verbal phrases. They have specific syntactic properties.
EN
Beginning with the definition of 'confirmation' estabilished in Polish linguistics, the division of this lexical group proposed by Adam Dobaczewski and understanding of term 'phraseological indicator' as discribed by A. M. Lewicki this paper presents descriptive and numerical results of analyses of lexicographical description of 25 phraseological confirmations (such as 'a jak', 'nie ma sprawy', 'w porzadku', 'zaden problem' etc.) and their homonyms being noted in three big general dictionaries of contemporary Polish language. These dictionaries are: 'Wspólczesny slownik jezyka polskiego' (1996, edited by B.Dunaj), 'Inny slownik jezyka polskiego' (2000, edited by M. Banko) and 'Uniwersalny slownik jezyka polskiego' (2003, edited by S Dubisz).This paper is focused on examining correctness of applied definitions, examples of use and grammatical categorization of individual items and also on evaluation of compatibility of these elements in lexicographical description. As a supplement this paper contains also examples of 9 (out of 25) full lexicographical analyses of phraseological confirmations.
EN
In the paper the authoress intends to present the analysis of the conceptualisation of the feeling of anger that is done on the basis of selected Polish and Spanish idioms. The aim of her contrastive investigations, carried out in the spirit of Cognitive Grammar, is to demonstrate the analogy between the conceptual images of anger in Polish and Spanish. The analysis of conventional linguistic units, having both metaphorical and metonymic basis, is done within the dimensions of TIME, SPACE, the sense of TOUCH (in the aspect of temperature, pressure and colour) and SIGHT. The comparison of conceptual metaphors, that constitute the basis of both Polish and Spanish phraseology, allows one to discern the similarities in the conceptualisation of the feeling of anger in the two languages. Anger is usually conceptualised as SUBSTANCE, LIQUID, CONTAINER, FIRE, RED COLOUR, ARMED OPONENT or RUSHING CAR. Anger generally manifests itself as a negative and harmful feeling and its connection with how it is experienced and expressed by means of conventional behaviours referring to common cultural, psychological and physiological patterns testifies to the fact that there is an analogy in the way it is conceptualised in both Polish and Spanish phraseology.
EN
For centuries, religious festivals have played an important culture-creating role in the Polish society. They also refer to the time around the festival seasons. The social importance of the holy days is reflected by a large number of phrasemes and proverbs found in dictionaries of the Polish language and paremiographic collections. The author has reviewed various lexicographic sources and selected several dozen phrasemes related to religious festivals in general as well as over 200 proverbs related to the most important Roman Catholic festivals i.e. Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Pentecost and Corpus Christi. The analysis shows that most of the proverbs relate to Christmas (63%), some of them to Easter (23%), Epiphany (7%) and Pentecost (5.5%), and few are connected to Corpus Christi (1.5%). The largest group of the studied proverbs refers to th weather and economy, few of which are actually in use today. Based on simple syntactic structures and grammatical rhymes, these proverbs once made it easier for Poles to understand and interpret their world. Today, they are a part of the Polish cultural heritage.
15
Content available remote K frazeologii klubů amatérské kopané Ústecka
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EN
This article is devoted to the phraseology of amateur football clubs in the Usti nad Labem region. First we classify the phraseology gathered from the expressions of the players, referees, coaches and fans. Then we choose a few expressions that were tested by subjects from the above-mentioned groups and analyzed the results of this test to discover the differences in respondents' knowledge based on their age, education, club membership and relationship to the game. Due to the limited number of respondents, the results are not definitive. Despite this, we can declare that university-educated respondents had better knowledge of publicistic phrases.
EN
When learning German language we often realize that German phrases became a part of Slovak language. The author of the study concentrates on the less known influence of Slovak language on Carpathian German dialect which for 600 years developed in constant contact with Slovak and Hungarian languages. Retreat of the German dialect has started already before the 20th century as a result of unfavourable economic situation and immigration. Further historical events speeded this process even more. The article presents the results of a research project called Phraseology of Carpathian Germans. The author describes the influence of Slovak on Carpathian German dialects on the bases of a questionnaire aimed at phraseological units of Carpathian Germans. The author addressed respondents between 64 and 90 years of age who used German as their first mother tongue. The study brings valuable information about the research of contacts between German dialects and Slovak. The author doesn't exclude also the influence of other dialects, such as Ruthenian, Polish and Hungarian.
EN
The paper approaches the notion anti-proverb, which is not spread in the Slovak paremiology and phraseology. On the contrary, it is widespread in the scholarly foreign works. The author points out, that almost all this notion names modified ways of using not only proverbs, but also the other cases of paremiology and even non-paremiological customary utterances. Paper deals with the typical attributes of anti-proverb as well as with inter-textual and the other relations of these collocations, especially with proverbs, quasi-proverbs and sayings. Nevertheless, only several collocations, connected with the notion anti-proverb, fully correspond with the motivation of the notion anti-proverb (they are not linked with individual proverbs and there is not included to them a formant anti- as an element representing the contradiction).
18
Content available remote Frazeologie novinového úvodníku: pohled didaktický
80%
Bohemistyka
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2011
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tom 11
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nr 3
205-222
EN
At 1996 the founder of Czech theory of phraseology František Čermák has published his paper Idioms in Newspaper Editorials. Editorials have been analyzed for the distribution of idioms in sentences, for structural types of idioms, variations of them and pragmatic expressions. This present report is an attempt of analysis the editorials of Jakub Patočka, former chief of Literární noviny between 2006 and 2008. In my paper I discuss the problem of the idiom usage in topics, but my main gool is to show how the students on seminars of phraseology can identify idioms in texts, and study the different working methods. An another problem is how to apply a procedure for the recognition of idioms in text in the case of a large corpus, such as Czech National Corpus.
EN
The paper focuses on the phraseme “prispieť svojou hrivnou” [to give one‘s mite to something], taking into account a wider Slavonic comparison framework. The comparison of semantic phraseological equivalents in individual Slavonic languages [Slovak, Czech: prispieť svojou hrivnou – přispět svou hřivnou; East Slavonic and South Slavonic languages: vnosiť (dať) svoju leptu] reflects the differences in the established monetary intra-phrasemes (the lepton – the name of a small Greek coin of little value, and “hrivna” – a unit of weight of precious metals, mainly gold and silver, in medieval Central and Eastern Europe, and also used as a type of currency before the use of minted coins was established). Since scholarly phraseology literature considers the phrasemes prispieť svojou hrivnou, vnosiť (dať) svoju leptu [to give one’s mite to something] as biblically motivated units, the author of the paper raises the question of what factors were involved in shaping the biblical nature of the phraseme “prispieť svojou hrivnou”, which, in the context of Slavonic languages, is used only in Slovak and Czech languages.
20
Content available remote Categorisation of plants in czech phraseology
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Bohemistyka
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2015
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tom 15
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nr 4
332 - 346
EN
This article presents an analysis of phraseological units with the PLANT component as found in contemporary Czech. The focus is on the set of features attributed to individual specimens of flora which reflect patterns of categorisation with reference to, for example, physical characteristics (shape, colour, taste,scent), useful properties, and behaviour. Categorisation is understood here as one of the possible tools of organizing and interpreting reality. The concept of categorisation refers to the pre-scientific (naive) commonplace perception of the world which involves the foregrounding those features which are relevant from a human perspective and ignoring those which are insignificant.
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