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EN
The paper attempts to analyse the neologisms in the literary genre of science fiction by comparing and evaluating the possibilities of their translation into other languages based on the example of the English novel Revenge of the Sith by Matthew Stover and its German and Polish translations. The study has shown that the neologism translatability rates in both translations are very high (about and over 80% for the German and Polish texts respectively). Owing to a considerable amount of occasional neologisms in the English original and language system similarities the most frequently applied translation methods included transplantation and imitation.
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Content available remote Czy polszczyznę mogą wzbogacić nowe typy struktur słowotwórczych?
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EN
The paper presents some considerations on the lexical development of Polish. It concentrates on the issues of word-formative enlargement of vocabulary. Against the background of analogy, compensation, and extra- and intralinguistic borrowing, it discusses the possible continuants of feminine names (adjectives and diminutives), and of masculine names of professions that were traditionally reserved for women (e.g. kosmetyczka ‘beautician’, niania ‘nanny’). The paper does not only identify the extralinguistic factors, such as the rise of new naming needs or the phenomenon of linguistic fashion (e.g. structures with the prefix para-), but it also investigates the processes of erosion of morphotactic constraints, and of customary limitations.
EN
In the article we consider the problem of understanding the unique lexemes-neologisms meaning people (root segment belongs to the Kazakh language, grammatical forming has the Russian basis), citizens of the country where communication is carried out by means of two languages — Kazakh and Russian. These lexical units, chosen from the modern Kazakh Russian-language press are interpreted differently by users of the two mentioned languages.
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Content available remote Atyp v cihle aneb O jednom progresivním způsobu neologizace
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EN
The article focuses on specific univerbated lexical units which are formed by desuffixation of an adjective in the initial noun phrase. This process leads to two different kinds of neologisms: lexical units having a new, discrete form (such as mobil), and lexical units with the form of an existing lexeme (such as bronz). The latter type reflects both semantic and word-forming processes. The author presents number of neologisms of both types, and discusses their meaning, use and frequency.
EN
The new lexis related to food: on the material of the Language Observatory of the University of Warsaw. An attempt to reconstruct the structure of the thematic field. The aim of this paper is to analyse the thematic field FOOD created from new lexical units extracted from the dictionary of neologisms of the Language Observatory of the University of Warsaw. The units will be assigned to specifi c thematic sub-fields. The structure of the field will be analysed. The differences between two collections of vocabulary belonging to the fi eld FOOD, i.e. vocabulary rooted in the Polish language and the most recent vocabulary, will be identified.
EN
The principles of word formation have been employed for a considerable period of time. In the contemporary German word formation numerous doubts are expressed concerning the correctness of newly formed words, but languages are constantly developing and some expressions which were previously considered incorrect are now accepted as a norm. The development tendencies of the language constitute its driving force. It should be observed that apart from two basic trends in the development of word formation, i.e. the propensity for abbreviating and the tendency to make information precise, a third trend can be added, namely the automatic use of derivational techniques. More specifically, the creation of derivatives out of native word-forming elements consists merely in their mechanical combining, while any complications are eliminated. It should also be stressed that in the contemporary German abbreviations are created on a mass scale. In addition, the specific nature of the German language consists in its having two parallel word-forming systems: the native word-forming system and the borrowed word-forming system which is based on borrowings from other languages, especially on English word-forming patterns. The contemporary German language borrows from the English language not only suffixes and prefixes, but also morphologically unchanged simple and complex lexemes which are then used to form direct elements of compounds, derivatives and conversions. In the process of composition, the borrowed words get combined both with one another and with the native units. The considerations I have included in my article provide enough evidence to support the claim that the problems connected with word formation are still fashionable and inspire a lot of research. The German language lives, changes, responds to the dominant globalizing tendencies, which is also observable in the field of word formation.
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The article deals with the changes of Ukrainians’ linguistic picture of the world in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. The peculiarities of the linguistic picture of the world and the national linguistic picture of the world are determined. Neologisms, phraseological modifications and some samples of modern folklore are analyzed. It was found that the peculiarity of COVID neologisms is the adaptation of foreign borrowings and the use of typical Ukrainian means of word formation. COVID phraseologisms are modifications of phrases already existing in the mind of the Ukrainian speaker. As for folklore, modern Christmas and New Year folklore under conditions ofCOVID-19 is a kind of transformation of traditional carols and congratulations. Anecdotes about the pandemic stand apart from previous folklore samples and reflect not only Ukrainian modern realities but also its past. Memes also serve as a source of traditions, history, culture of Ukrainian people. Understanding the verbalized picture of the COVID world is impossible without knowledge of these aspects of the nonverbal world, as well as previous experience of verbalization.
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Content available INNOWACJE JĘZYKOWE W MOWIE DZIECI PRZEDSZKOLNYCH
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EN
The author discusses lexical innovations in children's speech, based on the data on word-building formations collected during direct observation of spontaneous speech of children aged 4 to 6. The object of the study is the methods and motivations used to create lexical innovations which come as new elements in children's speech, and have been created either as a result of insufficient awareness of the language norm or as a result of new linguistic associations.
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Content available remote English back formation in the 20th and the early 21st centuries
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EN
The subject of the present study is a description and analysis of English back-formation in the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Investigation of an overall sample of 768 back-formed items has resulted in the following findings: Productivity of back-formation remains on the same level as it was in the first half of the 20th century. The most productive process is formation of verbs from action nouns. Back-formation of verbs from agent nouns has decreased, formation of verbs from adjectives almost disappeared. Adjectives can be seen as a minor source of back-formed nouns. There is a growth in involvement of compounds in this process. The most frequent subtracted suffixes are -ing, -ion/-ation and -er, all of them being involved in the formation of verbs. Stylistically unmarked items prevail, but they are often limited in use. Prefix back-formations continue to be formed. Inflectional back-formations seem to be on the decline. The class of adjectives back-formed from agent nouns is a new type that might continue in occurrence. From the analysis of the material investigated, the following main conclusion has been made: Back-formation can be considered a transparent, analysable and productive word-formation process, which has an indisputable potential for generating new words in the future.
EN
The paper deals with selected aspects of the structure of unconventional and non-serial neologisms called lexical blends. Firstly, an analysis is offered of the structural features of this distinctive type of derivation included in their definitions. The similarities and differences in outlining the structure and borders of the category of lexical blends by various authors are also discussed. Secondly, after presenting selected typologies of lexical blends that are based on their structural features, the relation of linearity of lexical blends and their felicity is investigated. Lastly, some peripheral phenomena that cannot be captured by typologies based on formal criteria are pointed out.
PL
This article presents the linguistic ways of creating names of dog breeds for dog lovers. The research material comes from online forums associating dog lovers. This article is just an introduction to the deliberations on one of the environmental variations of the language, that is the language of dog lovers.
EN
Published in 2010, the Kashubian translation of Adam Mickiewicz’s poem Pan Tadeusz is the first major translation of an extensive specimen of Polish belles-lettres into Kashubian. Stanisław Janke, a Kashubian poet, writer, literary critic and the translator of the text undertook a particularly difficult task, as Pan Tadeusz, a Polish nobility epic written in the 1830’s teems with lexemes that do not exist in contemporary Kashubian, whereas the characters in Mickiewicz’s poem use many expressions and forms that come from Old Polish and are no longer used by the contemporary speakers of Polish. In his translation, Stanisław Janke introduced many phonetic and word formation archaisms taken from Kashubian dialects; in addition, he also made use of words that are not found in contemporary Kashubian dialects, but which are listed in Trepczyk’s Polish-Kashubian dictionary. For the researchers dealing with language change in the Kashubian literary language these specimens of neologisms and neosemanticisms are particularly interesting. This article analyses a sample of 21 such words. Undoubtedly, few of them will be used by speakers of Kashubian; however, a surprisingly high number of them have become adopted in the literary Kashubian language.
EN
This paper analyses the problem of ”transition” of neologisms created by the author among texts of fantasy literature. Our research is based on the texts of J. R.R. Tolkien and A. Sapkowski „Transition” of neologisms created by the author will be considered as a sort of borrowing of this kind of lexicon from already existing translations and using it in their works, where it starts to function not as equivalent, but as a part of new, created in a given language original text. It is also worth mentioning, that process of “transition” of neologisms created by the author, between different texts has quite dynamic nature. That is because it might be infinite. Equivalents created by a translator may be used by different authors, as a part of lexi
EN
Our article tackles the subject of the creation of the adjectives in French language in recent years. The questions that have arisen in the course of the investigation concern the vitality of the category of adjectives compared to other parts of speech, as well as the most frequent ways in which adjective neologisms have emerged in recent years. We also ask if the very significant influence of English language on the newest French lexis is also evident in case of adjectives, and finally whether the analysis of neologisms within this category enables to limit the field of study to Romance languages only.
EN
The evolution of the English language, its changing in the situation of language contacts and functioning of English as an international means of communication have created a need for a more systematic analysis of related phenomena. In this paper, new English words which apparently appeared due to globalization and internationalization, have been considered. On the basis of authoritative theoretical approaches and several e-dictionaries, the words selected by means of continuous sampling method (more than 200 units) were analysed in terms of their semantics, morphology and spelling. Then they were classified into several thematic groups: 1) new words for naming natural and artificial versions of current English; 2) words classified with regard to social accents and dialects; 3) neologisms that reflect the English language domain and its interaction with indigenous languages. The morphological analysis revealed the application of different processes of word-formation, including neologisms and forms created according to traditional English patterns. Sometimes play on words and homo-acronyms were used in order to reinforce the meaning and connotation. Compounding and blending were found to be the most productive means of words formation within the corpus, and stylistic neologisms, used to mark a certain underlying sense proved to be the second most frequent process. It is demonstrated that studying of the currently active processes of word formation in the English language used as an international communication tool emphasizes the interdisciplinary aspect of such research programs.
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Content available Etymologiczne zabawy Juliana Tuwima
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PL
The article concentrates on the etymological and quasi-etymological considerations of Julian Tuwim, his fascination with Slavism and the future of language and word-formative experiments. Of course, there is no mention here about a program manifesto forming a logically ordered lecture in an academic sense. The linguistic knowledge of the poet “can be recognized” in his opinions appearing in Pegazie dęba or in funny poetical puns and metalinguistic utterances. It must be emphasized that in the writer’s opinion, language is not only a substance used for creation of the literary vision of the world. The artist makes efforts to comprehend the secrets of a language system and even draws conclusions of theoretical nature, turning language into a kind of a “protagonist” of his own poetic texts, journalistic texts or texts on the theory of literature.
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Content available remote The Euphemistic Value of Some Romanian Neological Phraseologisms
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EN
This paper investigates Romanian neological phraseologisms used euphemistically, which are analysed from the viewpoint of the sources and fields of use in Romanian.Our approach started from a few theoretical observations regarding the semantic possibilities of neologisms, with special reference to the expressivity of the phraseological neologisms with euphemistic value. The first part of the paper deals with the stylistic markers of phraseological euphemisms, as well as with the internal and external strategies through which phraseological neologisms were borrowed into Romanian. Occasional phraseological neologisms pertaining to the journalistic discourse have then been made the major focus through the analysis of the combinatorial techniques within the euphemization process.The second part of the paper analyses the phraseological representation of inherently euphemistic neologisms, generated by the taboos referring to character flaws, reprehensible behaviour, social condition, as well as the stylistic markers of some phraseological neologisms with euphemistic value pertaining to scientific terminologies like economy, medicine, and the military.
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Content available Words Mean. Words Look. Words Sell (Themselves)
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EN
An article entitled Words Mean. Words Look. Words Sell (Themselves) focuses on three issues: dominance of the use of English loanwords over attempts to create their Polish equivalents (as a result of which a product, a process, an event, or an artefact promoted by the English-speaking culture is adopted together with its name), a trend whereby words (and titles composed of words) become images (through a choice of font, a non-standard use of lowercase and uppercase letters, or an inclusion of non-letter characters, e.g. parentheses), and ascribing to words present in micro-acts a promotional function, advertising the entire product – a text. The trends discussed in the article are not new, but it is their intensity level that is new.
EN
The article considers reflexes of non-standard language representations of the international lexemes mentalitet and mental’nost’ in contemporary Russian speech as indicator of communicative-discursive appropriation of corresponding foreign-culture concept “mentality”. The purpose is to study changes of conditions of lexemes’ standard attributive compatibility. The material of the study is contexts of usage of these words in Russian National Corpus and in the Internet-communication. The models of word-combinations “adjective + substantive” with attributed words mentalitet and mental’nost’ are analyzed. The findings are that extension of spheres of their application and opportunity of evaluative reception of their primordially non-evaluative conceptual content demonstrates continuing tendency to cultural appropriation of the foreign-culture concept “mentality” in contemporary Russian speech.
EN
The paper is an attempt to look at the examples of lexical neologisms, whose existence is based on the canvas of a joke, which, especially in the language of young people seems to be of great importance. The presented neologisms are divided into several groups, the most important division is the result of their origin - native vs foreign, the second one is the effect of the internal division of neologisms to neologisms (new words) and neosemantisms (new meanings).
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