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Content available remote Current approach to episiotomy: Inevitable or unnecessary?
An episiotomy is a surgical incision through the perineum made to provide sufficient area for the delivery of the infant. About 10 to 95% of women who deliver will have episiotomy depending on which part of the world they are having delivery. Too early episiotomy causes extensive bleeding and too late episiotomy causes the excessive stretching of a pelvic floor and lacerations could not be prevented. According to widely accepted arguments, there are many benefits of episiotomy for the neonate: prevention of injuries, shoulder dystocia and mental retardation of the infant. Benefits for the mother are: reduction of severe lacerations, prevention of sexual dysfunction, prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence. But those things could also be complications of episiotomy, if it is being used nonrestrictively. Some other complications are also extensive bleeding, hematoma or infection. There are many different opinions in literature about using episiotomy restrictively or routinely, so it is the right doubt arisen: is it inevitable or unnecessary? There is a wide variation in episiotomy practice, and the decision of performing it or not depends of actual clinical situation. There is still a great need for continuous obstetrics education according to the evidence based guidelines for the patient’s safety.
Wybór Donalda Tuska na przewodniczącego Rady Europejskiej wywołał w Polsce kolejną żarliwą, ogólnonarodową debatę. Z jednej strony odezwały się głosy mówiące o sukcesie premiera, z drugiej natomiast dało się słyszeć komentarze zgodnie, z którymi mamy tu do czynienia z tchórzliwą ucieczką od odpowiedzialności. Samego Donalda Tuska przedstawiano albo jako męża stanu, dla którego nowe stanowisko jest ukoronowaniem wspaniałej kariery, albo jako skompromitowanego polityka, który unika politycznej odpowiedzialności godząc się na lukratywne, ale mało istotne stanowisko polityczne. Autor artykułu podejmuje próbę analizy tej debaty wykorzystując jako teoretyczny układ odniesienia koncepcję metody dokumentarnej Harolda Garfinkla oraz kategorie analityczne zaczerpnięte z analizy dyskursu.
Election of Donald Tusk as President of the European Council has elicited another vehement, nationwide debate in Poland. During this discussion two opposite points of view have been presented. Representatives of the first of them, have claimed that this election should be interpreted as a huge success of prime minister, whereas supporters of the second perspective have argued that it is just cowardly escape from responsibility. In consequence Donald Tusk has been presented both, as a statesman for whom this election is culmination of brilliant career, and as a compromised politician, who accepted lucrative but extremely unimportant job. The author attempts to analyse this debate using Harold Garfinkel’s conception of the documentary method and categories taken from discourse analysis as a theoretical framework.
The paper refers to a diplomatic controversy between Brazil and the United States that took place in the late sixties of the 20th century. The reason of the dispute layed in a fact of exporting processed soluble coffee by Brazil to the USA at very competitive prices. The US processors didn’t have access to law grade coffees, which served as a raw material to fabrication of soluble powder. The US processors forced the Department of State to counteract that situation. As a result the USA government blamed Brazil of discriminatory trade practices and violating free trade. The controversy was put under the consideration of the International Coffee Organization. The proceedings coincided with the twilight of the American aid programme for Latin America called Alliance for Progress. The controversy was an instance of growing suspicions and deteriorating relations between Latin America and the USA, which changed its foreign policy in that region from supporting development of democracy in the continent toward backing up military regimes.
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