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The aim of the deliberations presented in this paper is an attempt to identify the basic methodological assumptions that are, or at last should be, taken into account in the agricultural lawyers’ work. These assumptions are determined by the objectives and conditions of the research and, with regards to the latter, by the characteristics of the analysed legal regulations and the social relationships constituting the object of these regulations. The deliberations are based on two theses that constitute at the same time preliminary assumptions for further discussion: that the study of agricultural law, due to the current and future development of legislation, is void of the temporariness feature, and that a separate, specialised study on the subject is useful and desired. The following methodological assumptions are discussed: (i) the importance of including the agricultural aspect in legal regulations, (ii) the need to maintain the identity of agricultural law, (iii) the requirement of uniformity of regulations on agriculture, (iv) the need to use in the studies on agricultural law the solutions developed in other legal and non-legal sciences. The first three assumptions serve to determine the area of research in agricultural law, while the fourth identifies the manner in which the research should be conducted.
IT
Lo scopo delle considerazioni è un tentativo di stabilire i presupposti metodologici di base che sono, o almeno dovrebbero essere, presi in considerazione nei contributi degli agraristi. Questi presupposti vengono determinati dagli obiettivi e condizioni di ricerca, e nell’ambito delle seconde – dalle caratteristiche delle regolazioni giuridiche analizzate e dai rapporti sociali costituenti il loro oggetto. Alla base delle presenti considerazioni si trovano due presupposti che fungono da ipotesi di partenza: lo studio del diritto agrario visto lo sviluppo attuale e futuro della legislazione è privo di caratteristica della temporaneità e le ricerche separate (specialistiche) sono necessarie e utili. L’autore discute i seguenti presupposti metodologici: (A) la necessità di prendere in considerazione l’aspetto agricolo delle regolazioni giuridiche, (B) la necessità di preservare l’identità del diritto agrario e (C) l’unità delle regolazioni agrogiuridiche, (D) la necessità di utilizzare nello studio del diritto agrario il patrimonio di altre scienze giuridiche ed extragiuridiche. I primi tre presupposti devono servire soprattutto a precisare l’area di ricerca della scienza del diritto agrario (in realtà essi sono l’espressione della concezione di separazione del diritto agrario nella struttura dell’ordine giuridico), l’ultimo invece determina il modo in cui la scienza va affrontata.
EN
The aim of the deliberations in this article is to articulate the food challenges before the Common Agricultural Policy and to determine their role in shaping the agricultural policy and agricultural law. It is also an attempt to formulate a few reflections on the contemporary model of the development of CAP, and therefore the agricultural law as such. It is not accidental that among the contemporary challenges, those arising in connection with food are primary. A detailed study presented in this article examines food safety and food security as well as the development of food quality systems. In this context, challenges connected with natural resources and territorial aspects have been addressed, to finally conclude that having in mind all those, tight connections between agricultural policy and food policy and between agricultural law and food law must be emphasised.
IT
L’obiettivo delle considerazioni è di stabilire le sfide alimentari della Politica Agri-cola Comune e di determinare il loro ruolo per il divenire della politica agricola e del diritto agrario. Lo studio costituisce un tentativo di formulare alcune riflessioni su un modello contemporaneo di sviluppo della Politica Agricola Comune e – di conseguenza – del diritto agrario. Non a caso tra le sfide contemporanee della politica agricola comune in primo luogo vengono menzionate quelle connesse all’alimentazione. L’oggetto delle consi-derazioni particolari sono invece i problemi relativi a garantire la sicurezza alimentare e la sicurezza degli alimenti ed anche allo sviluppo di sistemi di qualità alimentare. In questo contesto l’autore affronta le sfide connesse alle risorse naturali e agli aspetti territoriali, invece nella parte conclusiva – tenendo conto dell’importante ruolo attribuito alle sfide alimentari – mette tra l’altro in rilievo una stretta relazione tra la politica agricola e quella alimentare e tra il diritto agrario e quello alimentare.
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Content available Prawo rolne wobec współczesnych wyzwań
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EN
The underlying assumption of the deliberations presented in this paper is that development of agricultural law is a result of the challenges and changing agricultural policies that agriculture has had to cope with over many past centuries. As a consequence, agricultural law has, on the one hand, been adopting to the changing environment, and on the other hand it was changing internally, passing through different stages of development. Today, the Resolution of the European Parliament and the Council of December 2013 setting out the legal framework of the common agricultural policy may be regarded as a response to the challenges which agriculture and food management are currently facing. The conclusion is, among others, that today agricultural law continues to demonstrate enormous adaptive potential. The best proof confirming this claim is that its scope has now gone beyond the strictly understood land matters and extended first, on the regulation of the organisation of an agricultural market, to subsequently include agro-industry, food and environmental issues, rural development and climate protection.
IT
Alla base delle considerazioni svolte sta il presupposto secondo il quale lo sviluppo del diritto agrario è il risultato delle sfide poste davanti all’agricoltura nel corso dei secoli e – su questo sfondo – soprattutto davanti alla politica la quale decideva del modo in cui andavano affrontate. Il diritto agrario ha risposto alle mutevoli sfide della modernità così come veniva intesa in un dato momento o luogo, ma al contempo ha subito modifiche, attraversando varie fasi di sviluppo. I regolamenti del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio (UE) del dicembre 2013, i quali determinano il quadro normativo della Politica Agricola Comune per gli anni 2014-2020, possono essere trattati in qualità di risposta alle sfide poste davanti all’agricoltura ed all’economia agroalimentare. In conclusione l’autore afferma tra l’altro che il diritto agrario ha dimostrato e continua a dimostrare una notevole capacità di adattamento, la quale si manifesta nel cambiamento dei confini di questo diritto, nell’andare al di là della problematica della terra, nell’includere l’organizzazione del mercato agricolo nella regolazione giuridica, e successivamente anche la problematica agroalimentare e agroambientale, in riferimento allo sviluppo delle zone rurali e alla tutela del clima.
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Content available Profesor Andrzej Stelmachowski jako agrarysta
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The subject of this paper are the main features of scientific development of professor Andrzej Stelmachowski as a rural lawyer. It considers the role that he has played in granting autonomy and developing of rural law science, the characteristics of his scientific work, his attitude as a researcher and the message he has passed through his achievements. According to the Author, the conceptual findings of professor Stelmachowski have been crucial for rural law science development and have constituted the fundamental basis for autonomy of this branch of law within the legal order. They also have been a great source of inspiration. If not this intellectual contribution and inspiration, the rural regulations that have been growing since the late fifties would have remained just a section of legislation, and the rural law science would still be at its formative stage. The analysis are concluded with the messages deriving from professor’s Stelmachowski accomplishments for the future generations of rural lawyers and the general estimation of his life attitude and scientific achievements.
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Płatności bezpośrednie i wspieranie obszarów wiejskich
PL
Stosunki własnościowe w rolnictwie i kształtowanie ustroju rolnego.
EN
The aim of this paper is to evaluate Polish agricultural law periodicals in comparison with their Western European counterparts. In particular, the evaluation takes into account the mission of the periodicals, their thematic scope, the layout and language of the texts published, and the circle of their addressees-readers. With consideration given to the length of time that such periodicals have been on the publishing market and their publication output, the Italian context is the first to be taken into account, before attention turns to German, French, and Spanish periodicals. The author concludes that agricultural law periodicals were established at different stages in the development of this branch of law. The oldest one (Rivista di Diritto Agrario) brought the name of this new normative matter into scientific circulation, and subsequently contributed to both the separation of agricultural law in the system of law and its further development. Other periodicals (Agrar- und Umweltrecht, Revue de Droit Rural and Revista de Derecho Agrario y Alimentrario) were established in the 1970s and 1980s, with a view to strengthening the science of agriculturallaw and its influence on the practice of law-making and application. In this light, Polish agricultural law periodicals look somewhat inferior, as they are characterized by a short period of functioning on the publishing market. The future of the periodical Przegląd Prawa Rolnego (Agricultural Law Review), the only agricultural law journal in Poland, is under threat, due to the fact that authors now tend to submit articles on agricultural law to other, more highly-ranked journals.
PL
Celem rozważań jest sformułowanie oceny czasopism prawnorolnych w Polsce na tle periodyków zachodnioeuropejskich. W szczególności ocena ta ma na uwadze misję czasopisma, jego zakres tematyczny, układ treści i język publikacji oraz krąg ich adresatów-czytelników. Ze względu na okres funkcjonowania na rynku wydawniczym oraz dorobek publikacyjny w pierwszej kolejności uwzględnia się doświadczenia włoskie, a następnie niemieckie, francuskie i hiszpańskie. W konkluzji autor stwierdza między innymi, że czasopisma z zakresu prawa rolnego były zakładane na różnych etapach rozwoju tej gałęzi prawa. Najstarsze („Rivista di Diritto Agrario”) wprowadziło do obiegu naukowego nazwę nowej materii normatywnej, przyczyniło się do wyodrębnienia prawa rolnego w systemie prawa i jej dalszego rozwoju. Kolejne z nich („Agrar- und Umweltrecht”, „Revue de Droit Rural” i „Revista de Derecho Agrario y Alimentrario”) zostały utworzone w latach siedemdziesiątych i osiemdziesiątych ubiegłego wieku, by wzmocnić naukę prawa rolnego i jej oddziaływanie na praktykę stanowienia i stosowania prawa. Na tym tle niezbyt dobrze wypadają czasopisma prawnorolne w Polsce, gdyż charakteryzuje je krótki okres funkcjonowania na rynku wydawniczym. Zagrożenie dla przyszłości „Przeglądu Prawa Rolnego”, jedynego obecnie w Polsce czasopisma prawnorolnego, może wynikać z kierowania przez autorów artykułów z zakresu prawa rolnego do druku do innych, wyżej punktowanych czasopism.
PL
The purpose of the reflection is to outline certain topical problems and to provide a framework for discussion. The conclusion that can be subsequently drawn is that among other things, the world (global) challenges facing agriculture and food economy must always be taken into account. In meeting today’s challenges, one cannot ignore the process of globalisation, but reference to locality ought to be made at the same time. The teaching of agricultural law should not only be of local nature, but should also address issues relevant to EU law (regional aspect) or see it in a wider international perspective (global aspect). The research must not be limited to the domestic law of a given country, but must also take into account international agricultural law and EU agricultural law (if viewed from the Polish perspective) as well as the interdependencies and tensions between the phenomena of globalisation, regionalisation and the locality. The same is true of the traditional relationship between agriculture and production, and of new relationships, such as agriculture and the market, agriculture and food, agriculture and the environment, and agriculture and rural areas. Each of them is interesting from a cognitive point of view and, what is more, is important in the practice of lawmaking and its application. It is also obvious that the implementation of contemporary challenges of agricultural law requires undertaking and conducting a comparative research. In order to facilitate such research, international cooperation should be widely developed.
IT
L’articolo si propone di delineare problematiche da affrontare nonché di impostare un quadro per la discussione. Nella parte conclusiva, l’Autore afferma tra l’atro la necessità di prendere sempre in considerazione le sfide mondiali (globali) poste davanti all’agricoltura e all’economia alimentare. Non è possibile – nell’attuare le sfide contemporanee – non tenere conto del processo di globalizzazione, ma allo stesso tempo – non riferirsi all’aspetto locale. La scienza del diritto agrario non può, tuttavia, avere solo un carattere locale, ma dovrebbe sollevare questioni rilevanti per il diritto dell’UE (aspetto regionale) o in una prospettiva più ampia – internazionale (aspetto globale). La ricerca non dovrebbe limitarsi solo al diritto interno di uno Stato, ma deve includere anche i cosiddetti diritto internazionale dell’agricoltura e diritto agrario dell’Unione Europea (guardando dal punto di vista della Polonia). Deve anche tenere conto delle interdipendenze e delle tensioni tra i fenomeni di globale, regionale e locale discussi. In tale prospettiva va inquadrato anche il rapporto tradizionale tra agricoltura e produzione, ma anche i rapporti nuovi tra agricoltura-mercato, agricoltura-prodotti alimentari, agricoltura-ambiente o agricoltura-zone rurali. Ognuno di essi è interessante dal punto di vista cognitivo, importante inoltre per il processo di emanare e applicare leggi. È anche ovvio che l’attuazione delle sfide contemporanee poste al diritto agrario in un contesto di globale, regionale e locale richiede di intraprendere e di svolgere ricerche comparative. Per facilitare tale ricerca, bisogna portare a uno sviluppo ampio della cooperazione internazionale.
EN
The purpose of this paper is formulation of a general thesis regarding the functionality of agricultural law in the past quarter of the century. The author has differentiated and analysed three stages of development of Polish agricultural law: (i) immediately after 1989 when political transformations commenced, (ii) the stage of approximation, or harmonisation of Polish law (including agricultural) in order to qualify for EU membership, and (iii) Poland’s EU-membership. The introduction of a market economy caused a significant reduction in special legal acts regulating agricultural matters. The increasing functionality of agricultural law at some later date was a result of a revival of legislative activity undertaken with a view of harmonising Polish agricultural laws with the European Union standards. An intensive development of agricultural law was a consequence of including Poland (as a EU-member State) within the CAP mechanism. However, the functionality of agricultural law shall not only be judged from the point of view of the absorption of EU funds, but also, and maybe in particular, from the point of view of their proper allocation and proper management (efficiency). Thus, when new EU regulations constituting the CAP framework for the 2014-2020 period are being implemented in Poland, special care will have to be taken to properly allocate the CAP direct payments.
PL
Celem rozważań jest sformułowanie ogólnej oceny funkcjonalności prawa rolnego w okresie minionego ćwierćwiecza. Autor wyróżnia i analizuje trzy okresy rozwoju prawa rolnego, tj. okres transformacji ustrojowej bezpośrednio po 1989 r., okres dostosowywania naszego prawa (i rolnictwa) do standardów europejskich w celu uzyskania członkostwa w Unii Europejskiej oraz okres członkostwa. Wprowadzenie gospodarki rynkowej przyniosło znaczne ograniczenie specjalnej regulacji prawnorolnej. Dlatego zwiększenie funkcjonalności prawa rolnego zostało powiązane z ożywieniem działalności legislacyjnej, które wystąpiło w dopiero okresie dostosowywania polskiego prawa rolnego do standardów europejskich. Objęcie rolnictwa mechanizmami wspólnej polityki rolnej w ramach członkostwa Polski w Unii Europejskiej zintensyfikowało rozwój prawa rolnego. Na funkcjonalność prawa rolnego w tym okresie należy patrzeć nie tylko z punktu widzenia absorbcji środków unijnych, lecz także, a może nawet zwłaszcza, ich właściwej alokacji, a tu – efektywności. Zatem polski ustawodawca, wdrażając nowe regulacje unijne stanowiące ramy wspólnej polityki rolnej na lata 2014-2020, będzie musiał zwrócić większą uwagę na problem alokacji środków pomocowych.
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L’articolo si propone di mettere in evidenza che il compito di costruire il „Sistema di diritto agrario” non solo è auspicabile (necessario e utile), ma anche possibile, nonché di formulare proposte di discussione riguardanti la concezione dell’opera. Nella parte conclusiva, l’autore afferma che è giunto ormai il momento di tornare alle idee di Andrzej Stelmachowski, di oltre trentacinque anni fa, e di intraprendere il lavoro. Molte ragioni, richiamate nell’articolo, si dimostrano a favore, inoltre, viste le condizioni sia oggettive sia soggettive, la sua messa in opera sembra ormai più che fattibile. Indubbiamente non è un compito facile, anche se agevolato dal fatto che gli agraristi possono vantarsi di una notevole esperienza acquisita lavorando insieme in vari progetti di ricerca scientifica, possono inoltre accedere a studi di esperti stranieri, che potrebbero fungere da modello. Se i lavori venissero intrapresi ora, a cavallo del 2022/2023 sarebbe possibile presentare la bozza definitiva presso la casa editrice.
EN
The aim of the considerations is to show that it is not only desirable (as well as necessary and useful) but also possible to develop an Agricultural Law System, and to propose a discussion on its concept. In the conclusions, the author states that it is now the right time to come back to the idea of Andrzej Stelmachowski, dating back more than thirty-five years, and develop an "Agricultural Law System." There are many reasons for doing so, and they are presented to in the article. The development of such a system is feasible taking into account both, the objective and the subjective conditions. There is no doubt that the realisation of such a serious work will not be easy, but agricultural lawyers have a great deal of experience in working together on various scientific projects, and may also benefit from foreign studies and solutions that can be used as a model. If work on the system started now, the finished material could be ready for submission to publishers at the turn of 2022/2023.
PL
Celem rozważań jest wykazanie, że opracowanie Systemu prawa rolnego jest pożądane (potrzebne i użyteczne), a zarazem możliwe, oraz sformułowanie propozycji do dyskusji dotyczących koncepcji tego dzieła. Według autora warto wrócić do idei A. Stelmachowskiego sprzed ponad trzydziestu pięciu lat i przygotować takie opracowanie. Przemawia za tym wiele względów omówionych w artykule, a umożliwiają to zarówno uwarunkowania obiektywne, jak i subiektywne. Realizacja tak poważnego dzieła na pewno nie będzie łatwa, ale agraryści mają duże doświadczenie we wspólnej pracy nad różnymi przedsięwzięciami naukowymi, a także dostęp do opracowań zagranicznych, które mogą być wykorzystane jako wzór. Gdyby takie prace zostałyby teraz podjęte, to na przełomie lat 2022/2023 gotowy materiał zostałby złożony w wydawnictwie.
PL
Piętnasta rocznica objęcia polskiego rolnictwa mechanizmami WPR skłania do podsumowania i oceny rozwoju nauki prawa rolnego w kontekście europejskim. Rozważania stanowią próbę sformułowania kilku   zasadniczych refleksji, koncentrując się na porównaniu dorobku w zakresie unijnego prawa rolnego, zagadnień ogólnych (teoretycznych) prawa rolnego (krajowego), tradycyjnych zagadnień tego prawa, prawa rolno-żywnościowego i rolno-środowiskowego oraz dotyczącego rozwoju obszarów wiejskich. W konkluzji autor stwierdza, że dystans dzielący polską naukę prawa rolnego od nauki zachodnioeuropejskiej  uległ  znacznemu zmniejszeniu. Problemy podejmowane przez polskich agrarystów mieszczą się w kręgu zainteresowań agrarystów zachodnioeuropejskich. Można więc powiedzieć, że polscy agraryści w coraz większym stopniu stają się partnerami w badaniach prowadzonych przez agrarystów zagranicznych, a wykorzystanie  ich możliwości badawczych i organizacyjnych może być użyteczne także na forum międzynarodowym.
IT
Il quindicesimo anniversario dall’inclusione dell’agricoltura polacca nei meccanismi della PAC incoraggia a sintetizzare e valutare lo sviluppo della scienza del diritto agrario nel contesto europeo. Nelle considerazioni svolte si tenta quindi di formulare alcune fondamentali riflessioni, nonché mettere a confronto i contributi nei seguenti campi: il diritto agrario dell’UE, le questioni generali (teoriche) del diritto agrario (nazionale), le questioni tradizionali del diritto agrario, diritto agroalimentare e agroambientale, e quello riguardantelo sviluppo rurale. In conclusione, l’autore afferma che le distanze tra la scienza polacca del diritto agrarioe quella dell’Europa occidentale si sono notevolmente ridotte. I problemi sollevati dagli agraristi polacchi si collocano nell’area di interesse degli agraristi dell’Europa occidentale. Pertanto, si può affermare che i primi stanno, sempre di più, diventando partner nelle ricerche condotte dai secondi, inoltre le loro capacità di ricerca, come anche quelle organizzative, possono tornare utili persino in un forum internazionale.
EN
The fifteenth anniversary of the inclusion of Polish agriculture in the CAP mechanisms prompts one to make summaries and comparisons and formulate evaluations of the development of the science of agricultural law in the European context. The deliberations presented in the article are an attempt to formulate a few valid reflections, focusing on the comparison of the EU agricultural acquis, the general (theoretical) agricultural (national) law issues, traditional agricultural law issues, agri-food and agri-environmental law and rural development. As it is demonstrated in the article, the distance between the Polish science of agricultural law and Western European science has significantly narrowed. The issues undertaken by Polish agricultural lawyers fall within the scope of interest of their Western European counterparts. It may therefore be said that Polish agricultural lawyers are increasingly frequently becoming partners in research conducted by foreign scholars, and the use of their research and organisational potential may also be useful on an international forum.
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Content available O potrzebie rozwoju nauki prawa rolnego
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The consequences of the difficult environment which the law sciences in Poland have been recently facing are particularly harsh for the science of agricultural law. Those unfavourable conditions manifest themselves inter alia in a very low number of lawyers who specialise in agricultural law, which is, essentially, a result of the limited, or even completely abandoned teaching of that subject at Polish universities. Other related disciplines such as agricultural administration or food law are also being neglected. And yet, as the EU and domestic legislation continues to expand, there is an increasing demand for scientific reports of various nature, including legal expertise. The author argues that Poland’s participation in the Common Agricultural Policy is an obvious reason for development of agricultural law, and emphasises the importance of that branch of law, looking at it from different angles. He addresses his postulates not only to specialists in agricultural law, but also lawyers working in other fields, and in particular those with deciding power that may help to educate a Polish law school graduate well prepared to meet the challenges and demands of the domestic as well as European legal services market.
IT
Le conseguenze delle moderne condizioni di sviluppo delle scienze giuridiche in Polonia nella scienza del diritto agrario si avvertono in maniera grave. Basta indicare anche soltanto un corpo docente molto ridotto che se ne occupa, il che è dovuto principalmente alla riduzione (o addirittura omissione) delle ore dell’insegnamento di questa materia (e di altre discipline a essa connesse, come p.es. l’amministrazione dell’agricoltura e il diritto alimentare) in molte università. Tuttavia, la richiesta di studi scientifici della materia in questione, comprendente i lavori di vario carattere (anche di tipo professionale) a causa dell’espansione delle regolazioni europee e nazionali, è sempre in aumento. In questo contesto, lo stato attuale della scienza del diritto agrario, nonostante i risultati conseguiti, non è certo soddisfacente. L’autore spiega la necessità di sviluppo della scienza del diritto agrario (il che nelle condizioni di attuazione della politica agricola comune sembra ovvio), indica l’utilità e l’urgenza di tale ricerca da diversi punti di vista. I destinatari dei postulati formulati non sono solo gli agraristi, ma anche rappresentanti di altre discipline specifiche di giurisprudenza (in particolare civilisti e amministrativisti), così come i decisori responsabili della preparazione dei laureati finalizzata all’inserimento nel mercato (anche europeo) dei servizi legali.
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Content available Ochrona gruntów rolnych i leśnych
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Ochrona gruntów rolnych i leśnych.
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Content available Opodatkowanie rolnictwa
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Opodatkowanie rolnictwa
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Content available Ubezpieczenie społeczne rolników
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Ubezpieczenie społeczne rolników
IT
Esther Muñiz Espada, Relaciones contractuales de cooperación en el medio agrario y rural, Editorial Aranzadi, Navarra 2020
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