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EN
In this study, 12 taxa from the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from different depths at Gemlik-Karacaali and Erdek-Ormanl?. A total of 175 specimens from these divisions were used to determine Total Protein (TP), Total Soluble Carbohydrate (TSCH) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a), Chlorophyll b (Chl b), Chlorophyll c (Chl c), total carotenoid (Car) contents and Chl b / Chl a, Chl c / Chl a, Car / Chl a, Car / Chl b, Car / Chl c ratios. TP, TSCH and pigment contents varied significantly with respect to the algal taxa, stations and depth distribution. In addition, individual differences were important in all of the measured parameters. The maximum TP contents (0.94%-31.03%) were determined in some of the Rhodophyta. In some green seaweeds belonging to the genus Ulva L., the TP content was determined between 2.9%-28.1%. Lower TP contents were determined in Cystoseira barbata (Good) C. Agardh (1.1%-4.3%). In contrast to TP contents, TSCH values were very low; maximum TSCH were determined in Ulva species, as were protein contents. In conclusion, the variations in TP, TSCH and pigment in 12 taxa of macroalgae were analysed according to station, depth, and environment.
EN
The experiment was organized in four replicants in arrangement split-plot with plots having a surface equal 9 m2. The basic fertilization was applied under the first regrowth. It was a mixture of unary fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassic salt) or polifoska. One form of supplementary fertilization was applied under the second and third regrowth. It was the stable form of fertilizer applied to soil. This form of supplemented nitrogen gave respectively: 50 kg N•ha -1; 80 kg N•ha-1; 110 kg N•ha -1; per each moving. During the vegetation season three movings were harvested. From each movings the sampIes of green matter were taken for chemical analyses, i.e. total protein content, soluble carbohydrates and net energy (NEL). The obtained results showed large differences in fodder quality of the meadow sward fertilized with three doses of nitrogen.
EN
The work was an attempt to determine and describe certain quality characteristics of edible potato on sale in Siedlce and Międzyrzec Podlaski. Potato tubers for examination were purchased in 3 kinds of retail outlets (ten shops of each kind) in east-central Poland. A total of 90 samples were collected to determine tuber size, protein and vitamin C content, reducing sugars and sucrose content. Potatoes purchased in all kinds of outlets met the standards set for tuber size. Potatoes bought in supermarkets had a better chemical composition than tubers purchased in groceries or fruit and vegetable shops. All the potato tubers were a good staple.
EN
The paper presents an assessment of selected cultivars and families of meadow timothy in terms of dry mass yields, total protein and crude fiber content. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Breeding Station in Skrzeszowice which belongs to Malopolska Plant Growing Company – HBP LLC. The research was done on degraded chernozem developed from loess. The standard cultivar – Karta, two accompanying cultivars; Obra and Skala and seven families, like SzD-T-133, SzD-T-134, SzD-T-135, POB-T-78, POB-T-80, POB-T-81 and POB-T-82 were investigated in this research. In the analyzed families and cultivars of meadow timothy total nitrogen was assessed by Kjeldahl’s method and crude fiber by gravimetric method by Goering and Van Soest. Obtained results of family value assessment point to their high breeding potential. Analyzed families and cultivars were characterized by high yields of dry mass where differences reached even 46 %. Individual researched objects differed also by total protein content ranging between 5.2 to 17.25 depending on the cut and years of harvest. On the other hand, the values for crude fiber fluctuated from 8.4 to 32.6 %. The highest concentration of total protein as well as the lowest concentration of crude fiber was found in POB-T-78 and SzD-T-135. Concentration of these components was significantly different in POB-T-78 and SzD-T-135 than in standard and accompanying cultivars. The highest concentration of total protein was found in POB-T-81, although the plants of POB-T-80 had the highest crude fiber content.
PL
Praca prezentuje ocenę wybranych odmian i rodów tymotki łąkowej pod względem plonów suchej masy, zawartości białka ogólnego oraz włókna surowego. Badania przeprowadzono na czarnoziemie zdegradowanym wytworzonym z lessu, na terenie Stacji Hodowli Roślin w Skrzeszowicach należącej do Małopolskiej Hodowli Roślin – HBP Kraków. W doświadczeniu uwzględniono odmianę wzorcową Karta, dwie odmiany towarzyszące Obra i Skala oraz siedem rodów: SzD-T-133, SzD-T-134, SzD-T-135, POB-T-78, POB-T-80, POB-T-81 i POB-T-82. W przygotowanym materiale roślinnym oznaczono azot ogólny metodą Kjeldahla, a włókno surowe metodą wagową Goeringa i Van Soesta. Uzyskane wyniki badania wartości rodów wskazują, że mają one wysoki potencjał hodowlany. Badane rody i odmiany charakteryzowały się dużymi plonami suchej masy, gdzie różnice sięgały nawet 46 %. Poszczególne badane obiekty różniły się także zawartością białka ogólnego, które wynosiły od 5,2 do 17,2 % w zależności od pokosu i lat zbioru. Natomiast dla włókna surowego wartości te kształtowały się od 8,4 do 32,6 %. Najwięcej białka ogólnego oraz mniej włókna surowego zawierały POB-T-78 i SzD-T-135, gdzie stwierdzono istotne różnice w stosunku do odmiany wzorcowej, jak i odmian towarzyszących. Spośród badanych rodów POB-T-81 wypadł najmniej korzystnie pod względem zawartości białka ogólnego, z kolei najwięcej włókna surowego odnotowano w roślinach POB-T-80.
EN
Legumes and herbs are valuable elements of the meadow sward. In the conditions of extensive meadow-pasture management, for example in protected areas where first cut harvest is delayed, they determine to a large extent fodder quality, for instance total protein content. The aim of the study was the evaluation of total protein and crude fibre contents, as well as dry matter digestibility of chosen legume and herb species from extensive grasslands. Research was conducted in the years 1998-2000 before first cut harvest (June – first ten days of July) in the Olsztyn Lake District. Together, 444 plant samples were studied. The determinant for sample uptake location was the occurrence of phytocenoses with at least 5% area coverage (2 in the Braun-Blanquet scale) with chosen legume species: Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Lotus corniculatus L., Lathyrus pratensis L., Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr., and Vicia cracca L., as well as herbs: Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Achillea millefolium L., Plantago lanceolata L., Alchemilla vulgaris L., Heracleum sibiricum L., and Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Average total protein content in the legumes oscillated between 176.9 and 196.6 g·kg⁻¹. Total protein content in herbs usually reached 100-120 g·kg⁻¹ for Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg., Achillea millefolium L. and Alchemilla vulgaris L. and 140-160 g·kg⁻¹ for Heracleum sibiricum L. and Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Research demonstrated that the legumes contained significantly more total protein and crude fibre than herbs, where no significant differences were found between the particular legume species. However, in the case of herbs, significant diversification of those components occurred, and the highest amount of protein and at the same time the lowest amount of fibre was accumulated by Heracleum sibiricum L. and Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Legume digestibility reached 60-65%. Among the herbs, higher digestibility was characteristic for Heracleum sibiricum L. (74.1%) and Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. (74.4%), whereas the lowest one for Achillea millefolium L. (62.2%).
PL
Rośliny bobowate i zioła stanowią cenny element runi łąkowej. W warunkach ekstensywnej gospodarki łąkowo-pastwiskowej, np. na terenach chronionych, gdzie zbiór pierwszego pokosu jest opóźniony, decydują w dużej mierze o jakości paszy, m.in. o zawartości białka ogólnego. Celem badań była ocena zawartości białka ogólnego i włókna surowego oraz strawności suchej masy wybranych gatunków roślin bobowatych i ziół z ekstensywnych użytków zielonych. Badania prowadzono w latach 1998-2000 przed zbiorem pierwszego pokosu (czerwiec – pierwsza dekada lipca) na terenie Pojezierza Olsztyńskiego. Łącznie przebadano 444 próby roślinne. Wyznacznikiem miejsc do pobrania prób było występowanie płatów roślinnych z co najmniej 5% pokryciem powierzchni (2 w skali Brauna-Blanqueta) przez wybrane gatunki roślin bobowatych: Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Lotus corniculatus L., Lathyrus pratensis L., Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr., Vicia cracca L. i ziół: Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Achillea millefolium L., Plantago lanceolata L., Alchemilla vulgaris L., Heracleum sibiricum L. i Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Średnia zawartość białka ogólnego w bobowatych wahała się na poziomie 176,9-196,6 g·kg⁻¹. Zawartość białka ogólnego w ziołach mieściła się najczęściej w granicach 100-120 g·kg⁻¹ – Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg., Achillea millefolium L. i Alchemilla vulgaris L. oraz 140-160 g·kg⁻¹ – Heracleum sibiricum L. i Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Badania wykazały, że rośliny bobowate zawierały istotnie więcej białka ogólnego i włókna surowego niż zioła, przy czym między gatunkami bobowatych nie stwierdzono istotnych różnic. U ziół wystąpiło natomiast istotne zróżnicowanie tych składników, a najwięcej białka i jednocześnie najmniej włókna gromadziły Heracleum sibiricum L. i Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Strawność roślin bobowatych mieściła się w przedziale 60-65%. Wśród ziół wyższą strawnością odznaczały się Heracleum sibiricum L. (74,1%) i Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. (74,4%), zaś najniższą Achillea millefolium L. (62,2%).
EN
The paper presents an assessment of varieties and strains of meadow grass regarding dry mass yields, total protein and crude fibre content. Obtained results of strain value testing reveal that the collection resources contain forms which have a high breeding potential. The studied strains and varieties were characterized by big yields of dry matter with differences reaching even 39 %. Individual studied objects differed also with the content of total protein reaching from 11.60 to 19.10 %. On the other hand for crude fibre the values fluctuated from 22.50 to 29.20 %.
PL
Praca prezentuje ocenę zróżnicowania odmian i rodów wiechliny łąkowej pod względem plonów suchej masy, zawartości białka ogólnego oraz włókna surowego. Uzyskane wyniki badania wartości rodów wskazują, że w zasobach kolekcyjnych są formy, które mają dużą wartość hodowlaną. Badane rośliny charakteryzowały się dużymi plonami suchej masy, gdzie różnice sięgały nawet 39 %. Poszczególne rośliny różniły się także zawartością białka ogólnego, które wynosiły od 11,60 do 19,10 %. Natomiast dla włókna surowego wartości te kształtowały się od 22,50 do 29,20 %.
EN
The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturaly infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.
EN
In rats exposed for 28 days (5 hours a day) to ozone at a concentration of 0.5 ppm and receiving alpha-tocopherol at doses of 4.5 mg/rat and 15 mg/rat, levels of acute phase proteins (APP) - C-reactive protein (CRP), ceruloplasmin (Cp), total protein, gamma-globulins, and activity of lysozyme in blood serum were studied. The assays were performed in the presence of respective control groups, i.e. rats receiving the same doses of alpha-tocopherol but not exposed to ozone, a group of animals not supplemented with vitamin but exposed to ozone, a group of animals injected with physiological fluid and a control group not subjected to any of the treatments. The study revealed that the ozone-exposed animals had an increased lysozyme activity and a decreased total protein level. However, in rats protected by alpha-tocopherol and exposed to ozone, the concentration of APP, lysozyme activity and total protein were found to be decreased. Similar relationships also occurred in animals receiving alpha-tocopherol and not exposed to ozone.
EN
In the present research an effectiveness of soil fertilisation with lower dosages of nitrogen combined with top supplying with a 10% water solution of carbamide was compared with that of the standard test soil fertilisation (PK + 220kg N/ha). A similar reaction of meadow sward in both cases of nitrogen feeding was observed. Fertilising the soil only with 55 kg of N/ha along with foliar fertilisation caused neither a decrease in the yield nor its quality. The application of the second spray for the second cut did not cause any decrease in yield, however it had positive effect on the content of total protein and crude fibre in the feed. A significant impact of the subsequent years of fertilisation on the combined effect of soil and foliar nitrogen fertilisation with carbamide solution was noted.
EN
The objective of the study was to compare the chemical composition of leg muscles of six duck strains. A total of 60 drakes out of four flocks of conservative (Miniduck K2, Polish Pekin P33-native, Pekin population-typeA3, synthetic Polish flock SB) and two breeding strains (A55, P66), aged seven weeks, were used for the study. The content of protein, lipids, moisture, essential amino acids, fatty acids and cholesterol were estimated. The muscles of K2 contained less lipids than the remaining ones. Fat of A55 and P66 leg muscles contained the least cholesterol. No significant differences in protein and moisture content were found. Isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) are amino acids limiting the biological value of meat proteins from leg muscles of A3, P33 and K2, and tryptophan (Trp) for A55, P66 muscles. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were predominant in the muscle fat of all flocks. The fat of A55 muscles contained the most UFA. The highest level of PUFA was determined for K2 muscles. The PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were 0.74-0.92 and 4.17-5.66 respectively. The lipids of A55 were characterized by the best fatty acid profile among the investigated muscles’ fat. Taking into consideration the nutritive value of proteins, cholesterol content and profile of fatty acids, A55 leg muscles appeared to be the most favorable from the perspective of human health.
PL
Analizowano zawartość chlorofili, karotenoidów, białka ogólnego i fenoli w ekstraktach liściowych otrzymanych metodą termiczną z soku lucerny (odm. Natsuwakaba) w obecności antyutleniacza ETX, jak również preparaty otrzymane poprzez wysuszenie całego soku w stosunku do preparatów uzyskanych z soku bez modyfikacji chemicznej.
EN
The contents of carotenoids, chlorophylls, total protein and polyphenols in protein concentrates obtained by thermal coagulation from alfalfa (var. Natsuwakaba) juice with ETX (ethoxyquin) added at 0.2%, and in the preparations obtained by drying ef ETX-containing 100% juice were analysed. ETX added to the juice acted to increase carotenoid and phenol contents, and to decrease the chlorophyll content in the tested products. The highest (41%) decrease of chlorophyll content was observed in the product obtained by drying the 100% juice. ETX efficiency was higher in the concentrates obtained from the alfalfa cut in spring than in those from the autumn alfalfa cuts (28% and 13% increase in carotenoid content, respectively).
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