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Research on Toll-like receptors (TLR), an important receptor family in immunology, has recently been extended to research connected with animals, such as ruminates (sheep and cattle), swine, dogs, cats and poultry. In ruminates TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 have been demonstrated; in swine, TLR2, 4, 6 and 9; in dogs,TLR2, 4 and 9; in cats TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9; whereas in poultry TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10 have been noted. On the basis of the homology between TLR in animals and in human and mice and the role and place of occurrence it has been proved that TLR plays a very important role in animals, similar to that in humans and mice.
The paper reviews the terminology, molecular activity and role of the NMDA glutamate receptors. As excitatory aminoacid receptors these receptors are generally classified as ionotropic (NMDA, AMPA, KA) and metabotropic depending (mGluR₁₋₈) on whether they form ion channels or are coupled to G-proteins, respectively. Recent investigations indicated the essential role of the NMDA receptors in the nociceptive processus modulation. Recent progress has been made in the development of specific antagonists - such as MK-801, araxines, mementine, DL-AP-3, and others - for these receptors, and can siginicantly facilitate prophilaxy and therapy in different types of pain.
Kisspeptin is a newly-discovered neurohormone, which is secreted from the hypothalamus. Initially it was thought that kisspeptin takes part in metastasis suppression. However, nowadays it is known that this hormone plays an essential role in the modulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. It has been demonstrated that mutation in the gene encoding kisspeptin’s receptor causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and infertility in animals and humans. It is well established that kisspeptin may directly stimulate hypothalamic neurons. In addition, this neurohormone directly affects the pituitary and gonads. In the current review the authors sum up all information about different ways of direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on reproductive processes and also present a novel insight into the mechanism responsible for the feedback loop of estrogen and androgen in mammals.
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