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Parasite diseases constitute a tremendous danger for human life all over the world, hence there is an urgent need for the recognition of the defense mechanisms of our body against these protozoan pathogens. The aim of this review has been to present the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as constituents of innate immunity engaged in the fight against parasites, mainly protozoan, that are the cause of illness among people and animals. This review also shows the means by which the protozoan can control the immunological response to extend their survival inside the host.
In 943 933 pigs the following parasitic invasion were confirmed: trichinellosis in 10 animals (0.0014%), echinococcosis — 21 748 (2.47%), sarcosporidiosis — 118 (0.02%) and ascaridosis — 7 244 (0.77%). In 216 900 cattle cysticercosis was confirmed in 409 animals (0.14%) and fasciolosis in 14 635 (7.16%), liver echinococcosis was not noted. In 16 912 sheep 636 (2.71%) were found to have fasciolosis and 58 (0.31%) had echinococcosis, cysticercosis was not discovered. The analysis showed the considerable decrease of incidence of pig trichinellosis in comparison with the years 1947—1965. The incidence of bovine cysticercosis, however, is regular.
The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of endoparasite infections in dogs taken care of in clinics in Olsztyn. Determining the prevalence of infections was based on faecal examination using standard coprological methods. Only nematode eggs were found. Of 157 faecal samples, 27% were positive. Among females, 40% of samples were positive, whereas among males -14%. All infected animals were over 18 months old. The most prevalent nematodes were Ancylostoma caninum (18%) and Toxocara canis (7%). In dogs dewormed during the year preceeding investigation, the prevalence of infection was 7%, while in unwormed ones – 33%.
The aim of the study was to discover if Nosema ceranae, a new parasite of Apis mellifera, is present in Poland. The first 15 samples of bees collected after the winter from the bottom of hives sent to laboratory for analysis in 2007 were investigated. The investigation under light microscopy revealed the presence of Nosema spores in ten samples. On the basis of the spores appearance conjunctures were made that N. ceranae was present in eight samples. Samples with Nosema spores were sent to Centro Regional Apicola in Marchamalo (Guadalajara, Spain) where the team of Profesor Meana and Dr. Higes, using PCR analysis, found N. ceranae in all the samples. The studies showed that N. ceranae is present in Polish apiaries and is becoming quite a common infection, and that the appearance of spores under a light microscope can play an important role in the diagnosis of the infection.
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